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See also: '
- pronunciation of -s'
- (after a vowel or a voiced consonant other than a sibilant) enPR: z, zəz, IPA(key): /z/, /zɪz/[[Category:English terms with IPA pronunciation|]]
- (after voiceless consonants /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, or /θ/) enPR: s, səz, IPA(key): /s/, /sɪz/[[Category:English terms with IPA pronunciation|]]
- (after sibilant consonants /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/)
- Possessive marker used on plurals that end with -s (or -es, etc).
- Chris’s heart leapt when she saw the expressions on her teachers’ faces.
- their faces’ expressions
- The countesses’ husbands were generally quite lavish.
- Possessive marker sometimes used on singular nouns (names) which end in s, indicating than an object belongs to the noun bearing the marker.
- Jesus' disciples
- Chris' cake recipe
- 2014 August 29, Minyvonne Burke, “Robin Williams Death: Actor’s Ghost Haunting Home He Died In, Playing Practical Jokes?”, in HNGN Headlines & Global News:
- Robin Williams’ ghost has apparently stuck around and is haunting the California home the actor died in.
- The plural possessive -s’ can be distinguished from the possessive marker -' on nouns that terminate in -s and from the possessive marker -'s (which see). Whether they are pronounced identically or differently varies between idiolects. The BBC prescribes the following distinction: (a) Dickens novel and Dickens’ novel /dɪkɪnz nɒvəl/, Dickens’s novel /dɪkɪnzɪz nɒvəl/; princess’s and princesses’ /pɹɪn.sɛs.ɪz/; i.e. adding bare ’ or -(e)s’ does not change pronunciation. Some speakers, however, may pronounce one or both as /ɪz/, i.e. Dickens’ as /ˈdɪkɪnzɪz/, princesses’ as /pɹɪn.sɛs.ɪs.ɪz/, and e.g. boys’ as /bɔɪzɪz/ (instead of the more common /bɔɪz/).
- Traditionally, the possessives of classical and Biblical names ending in s, such as Archimedes and Jesus, were written without a final “s”, i.e. the possessives were formed using bare ': Archimedes’ Principle (the principle of Archimedes), Jesus’ disciples (the disciples of Jesus). This may or may not be be distinguished from -'s in pronunciation; see -'s for more.
- In modern English, this practice may be extended to all names ending in s, i.e. both "Chris' recipe" and "Chris's recipe" may be found:
- forms the possessive of words ending in s, x or z
- Used to form the genitive forms of names ending in -s, -ß, -x, -z or (foreign) -ce, similar to English -'. For other names, -s is used.
- Hans', Hoeneß', Felix', Ringelnatz', Joyce'
- Hans', Hoeneß', Felix's, Ringelnatz's, Joyce's
- (now rare) -ens