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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Adjective-forming suffix was originally inherited from Proto-Indo-European *-iHnos via Proto-Balto-Slavic *-īˀnas. E.g.

Later it was productively applied to inherited i-stems:

The singulative meaning derives from original possessive meaning, for example the meaning of *čeljadinъ “member of the tribe or household” is derived from “belonging to the tribe or household”.

Cognate with Lithuanian collective-forming suffix -ýnas, Latin -īnus. Compare also *-ina for forming both collectives and singulatives (from Proto-Indo-European *-iHneh₂ and *-eyneh₂).



  1. -ine (of or pertaining to) Creates relative and possessive adjectives from nouns other than o-stems.

Usage notes[edit]

This suffix is attached to most type of noun, in particular a-stems (feminines). The suffix *-ovъ (and its variant *-evъ) is used with o-stem nouns (masculines and neuters).


Derived terms[edit]


  • East Slavic:
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic: -инъ (-inŭ)
    • Serbo-Croatian:
    • Bulgarian: -ин (-in)


*-inъ m

  1. Creates singulatives, mostly with consonantal-stem pluralia tantum or collective nouns denoting nationalities, names of residents of an area, names of tribes and place names.
    *bratъ (brother)*bratьja (brothers (collectively))*bratinъ (brother)
    *čeljadь (family, ancestral community, everyone in household)*čeljadinъ (one belonging to the family, tribe or household)
    *gospoda (lords (collectively))*gospodinъ (master, lord)
    *ljudь, *ljudьje (people, folks (collectively))*ljudinъ (man)
    *Obre (Avars)*obrinъ (Avar; giant)
    *voji (army)*vojinъ (soldier, warrior)
    *Rusь (Rus')*Rusinъ
  2. Exceptionally occurs in several unmotivated formations, usually to create an instrument or agent noun
    *melti, meljǫ (to grind)*mьlinъ ((type of) pancake) (if not *mъlinъ from molinus)
    *kolti, koljǫ (to hit with something sharp; to split)*kъlinъ (wedge, splitting tool)


Derived terms[edit]


  • Sławski, Franciszek, editor (1974) Słownik prasłowiański (in Polish), volume I, Wrocław: Polska Akademia Nauk, page 120