# orthogonal

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## English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

### Etymology

By surface analysis, ortho- +‎ -gon +‎ -al. From French orthogonal, from Medieval Latin orthogōnālis, from Latin orthogōnius (right-angled).

### Pronunciation

• (UK) IPA(key): /ɔːˈθɒɡ.ə.nəl/
• (US) IPA(key): /ɔɹˈθɑɡ.ə.nəl/
•  Audio (US) (file)
•  Audio (AU) (file)

### Adjective

orthogonal (not comparable)

1. (geometry) Of two objects, at right angles; perpendicular to each other.
A chord and the radius that bisects it are orthogonal.
1. Of a pair of vectors: having a zero inner product; perpendicular.
The normal vector and tangent vector at a given point are orthogonal.
2. Of a square matrix: such that its transpose is equal to its inverse.
3. Of a linear transformation: preserving its angles.
4. Of grid graphs, board games and polyominoes: vertical or horizontal but not diagonal.
5. Of a pair of elements in an ortholattice: each less than or equal to the orthocomplement of the other.
2. Statistically independent, with reference to variates.
3. Of two or more aspects of a problem, able to be treated separately; of a design, exhibiting consistency and composability.
The content of the message should be orthogonal to the means of its delivery.
• 1999, Andrew Hunt, David Thomas, The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master, Addison-Wesley Professional, →ISBN, page 36:
An orthogonal approach also promotes reuse. If components have specific, well-defined responsibilities, they can be combined with new components in ways that were not envisioned by their original implementors.
4. Of two or more problems or subjects, independent of or irrelevant to each other.

### Noun

orthogonal (plural orthogonals)

1. An orthogonal line

## French

### Etymology

Borrowed from Medieval Latin orthogōnālis, from Latin orthogōnius (right-angled).

### Pronunciation

• IPA(key): /ɔʁ.to.ɡo.nal/
•  Audio (file)

### Adjective

orthogonal (feminine orthogonale, masculine plural orthogonaux, feminine plural orthogonales)

1. orthogonal

## German

### Etymology

From Medieval Latin orthogonalis, from Latin orthogonius (right-angled).

### Pronunciation

•  Audio (file)
• Rhymes: -aːl

### Adjective

orthogonal (strong nominative masculine singular orthogonaler, not comparable)

1. orthogonal
Synonym: senkrecht

### Further reading

• orthogonal” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache
• orthogonal” in Uni Leipzig: Wortschatz-Lexikon