ἐπί

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See also: επί, επι-, and ἐπι-

Ancient Greek[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From the Proto-Indo-European *h₁epi. Cognate with Sanskrit अपि (ápi), Avestan 𐬀𐬌𐬞𐬌 (aipi), Old Persian [script needed] (apiy), Old Armenian եւ (ew), Latin ob, and Old English (English by).

Pronunciation[edit]

 
  • (5th BCE Attic) IPA(key): /e.pí/
  • (1st CE Egyptian) IPA(key): /ɛˈpi/
  • (4th CE Koine) IPA(key): /eˈpi/
  • (10th CE Byzantine) IPA(key): /eˈpi/
  • (15th CE Constantinopolitan) IPA(key): /eˈpi/
  • Preposition[edit]

    ἐπῐ́ (epí) (governs the genitive, dative, and accusative)

    1. (+ genitive)
      1. on, upon (on the upper surface of)
        καθέζεται ἐπὶ θρόνου.
        kathézetai epì thrónou.
        He sits down on the throne.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.46
          ἔκλαγξαν δ’ ἄρ’ ὀϊστοὶ ἐπ’ ὤμων χωομένοιο
          éklanxan d’ ár’ oïstoì ep’ ṓmōn khōoménoio
          The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 24.356
          ἀλλ’ ἄγε δὴ φεύγωμεν ἐφ’ ἵππων
          all’ áge dḕ pheúgōmen eph’ híppōn
          Come, let us flee on our chariot.
      2. on (supported by)
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 10.153
          ἔγχεα δέ σφιν / ὄρθ’ ἐπὶ σαυρωτῆρος ἐλήλατο
          énkhea dé sphin / órth’ epì saurōtêros elḗlato
          But their spears were driven into the ground erect on their spikes.
      3. (mostly post-Homeric) in
        • 406 BCE, Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 1705
          ἇς ἔχρῃζε γᾶς ἐπὶ ξένας / ἔθανε
          hâs ékhrēize gâs epì xénas / éthane
          He died on the foreign ground that he desired.
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 2.121E.2
          τὴν θυγατέρα τὴν ἑωυτοῦ κατίσαι ἐπ’ οἰκήματος
          tḕn thugatéra tḕn heōutoû katísai ep’ oikḗmatos
          He put his own daughter in a brothel.
      4. at, near
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 22.153
          ἔνθα δ’ ἐπ’ αὐτάων πλυνοὶ εὐρέες ἐγγὺς ἔασι / καλοὶ λαΐνεοι
          éntha d’ ep’ autáōn plunoì eurées engùs éasi / kaloì laḯneoi
          And there near these selfsame [springs] are broad washing-tanks, fair and wrought of stone.
      5. (of ships) at (dependent upon)
        ὁρμεῖν ἐπ’ ἀγκύρας
        hormeîn ep’ ankúras
        to ride at anchor
      6. (with reflexive or personal pronoun) by oneself
        ἐφ’ ἑαυτῶν ἐχώρουν
        eph’ heautôn ekhṓroun
        They proceeded by themselves.
      7. (with numerals, of a body of soldiers) deep
        ἐτάχθησαν ἐπὶ τεττάρων
        etákhthēsan epì tettárōn
        They formed a line four men deep.
        • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Hellenica 6.4.12
          οἱ δὲ Θηβαῖοι οὐκ ἔλαττον ἢ ἐπὶ πεντήκοντα ἀσπίδων συνεστραμμένοι ἦσαν
          hoi dè Thēbaîoi ouk élatton ḕ epì pentḗkonta aspídōn sunestramménoi êsan
          The Thebans, however, were massed not less than fifty shields deep.
      8. (with a person) before (in the presence of)
        • 480 BCE – 411 BCE, Antiphon of Rhamnus, First Tetralogy 3.8
          οὐ γὰρ ἐπὶ μαρτύρων ἀλλὰ κρυπτόμενα πράσσεται τὰ τοιαῦτα
          ou gàr epì martúrōn allà kruptómena prássetai tà toiaûta
          Crimes of this kind are committed in secret, not before witnesses.
      9. in the case of; on
        ἐπὶ τῶν πλουσίων [] αἰσθάνομαι
        epì tôn plousíōn [] aisthánomai
        In the case of the rich, I can see that []
        • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Memorabilia 3.9.3
          ὁρῶ δ’ ἔγωγε καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων πάντων ὁμοίως καὶ φύσει διαφέροντας ἀλλήλων τοὺς ἀνθρώπους
          horô d’ égōge kaì epì tôn állōn pántōn homoíōs kaì phúsei diaphérontas allḗlōn toùs anthrṓpous
          And similarly in all other points, I find that human beings naturally differ from one another.
      10. in the time of
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 23.332
          τό γε νύσσα τέτυκτο ἐπὶ προτέρων ἀνθρώπων, / καὶ νῦν τέρματ’ ἔθηκε ποδάρκης δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς
          tó ge nússa tétukto epì protérōn anthrṓpōn, / kaì nûn térmat’ éthēke podárkēs dîos Akhilleús
          Haply it was made the turning-post of a race in the days of men of old, and now swift-footed goodly Achilles has appointed it his turning-post.
      11. (of authority, power, etc.) in
        οἰ έπὶ τῶν πραγμάτων
        oi épì tôn pragmátōn
        the [men] in power
        • 46 CE – 120 CE, Plutarch, Phocion 32.3
          Δερκύλλου δὲ τοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς χώρας στρατηγοῦ συλλαβεῖν αὐτὸν ἐπιχειρήσαντος
          Derkúllou dè toû epì tês khṓras stratēgoû sullabeîn autòn epikheirḗsantos
          But Dercyllus, the Athenian general in command of the district, made an attempt to arrest him.
      12. on (an occasion)
        • 361 BCE, Demosthenes, Against Midias 38
          καὶ οὐκ ἐπὶ τούτου μόνον, ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ πάντων φαίνεται προῃρημένος μ’ ὑβρίζειν
          kaì ouk epì toútou mónon, all’ epì pántōn phaínetai proēirēménos m’ hubrízein
          And not only on that, but on every [occasion] he has shown a deliberate intention to insult me.
    2. (+ dative)
      1. on, upon
        καθέζεται ἐπὶ θρόνῳ.
        kathézetai epì thrónōi.
        He sits down on the throne.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 6.354
          ἀλλ’ ἄγε νῦν εἴσελθε καὶ ἕζεο τῷδ’ ἐπὶ δίφρῳ
          all’ áge nûn eíselthe kaì hézeo tôid’ epì díphrōi
          But come now, enter in, and sit thee upon this chair.
        • 408 BCE, Euripides, The Phoenician Women 1131
          σιδηρονώτοις δ’ ἀσπίδος τύποις ἐπῆν / γίγας ἐπ’ ὤμοις γηγενὴς ὅλην πόλιν / φέρων μοχλοῖσιν ἐξανασπάσας βάθρων
          sidēronṓtois d’ aspídos túpois epên / gígas ep’ ṓmois gēgenḕs hólēn pólin / phérōn mokhloîsin exanaspásas báthrōn
          This device his shield bore upon its iron back: an earth-born giant carrying on his shoulders a whole city which he had wrenched from its base.
      2. in
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 5.77.2
          νικήσαντες δὲ καὶ τούτους τετρακισχιλίους κληρούχους ἐπὶ τῶν ἱπποβοτέων τῇ χώρῃ λείπουσι
          nikḗsantes dè kaì toútous tetrakiskhilíous klēroúkhous epì tôn hippobotéōn têi khṓrēi leípousi
          And after overcoming them as well, they left four thousand tenant farmers on the lands of the horse-breeders.
      3. at, near
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 13.408
          αἱ δὲ νέμονται / πὰρ Κόρακος πέτρῃ ἐπί τε κρήνῃ Ἀρεθούσῃ
          hai dè némontai / pàr Kórakos pétrēi epí te krḗnēi Arethoúsēi
          They are feeding by the rock of Corax and near the spring Arethusa.
      4. over
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 11.261
          τοῖο δ’ ἐπ’ Ἰφιδάμαντι κάρη ἀπέκοψε παραστάς
          toîo d’ ep’ Iphidámanti kárē apékopse parastás
          And he drew near and struck off his head over [the body of] Iphidamas.
      5. in honor of
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 24.91
          οἷ’ ἐπὶ σοὶ κατέθηκε θεὰ περικαλλέ’ ἄεθλα
          hoî’ epì soì katéthēke theà perikallé’ áethla
          Such beautiful prises did the goddess set there in thy honor.
      6. against
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 6.74.1
          ἐνθεῦτεν δὲ ἀπικόμενος ἐς τὴν Ἀρκαδίην νεώτερα ἔπρησσε πρήγματα, συνιστὰς τοὺς Ἀρκάδας ἐπὶ τῆ Σπάρτῃ
          entheûten dè apikómenos es tḕn Arkadíēn neṓtera éprēsse prḗgmata, sunistàs toùs Arkádas epì tê Spártēi
          From there he came to Arcadia and stirred up disorder, uniting the Arcadians against Sparta.
      7. in addition to, over, besides
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 17.454
          ὢ πόποι, οὐκ ἄρα σοί γ’ 'ἐπὶ εἴδεϊ καὶ φρένες ἦσαν
          ṑ pópoi, ouk ára soí g’ 'epì eídeï kaì phrénes êsan
          Well, now, it seems that you at least do not have wits in addition to your beauty.
      8. (with duplication of head noun) after
        ὄγχνη ἐπ’ ὄγχνῃ γηράσκει
        ónkhnē ep’ ónkhnēi gēráskei
        One pear after another ripens.
        • 458 BCE, Aeschylus, The Libation Bearers 404
          βοᾷ γὰρ λοιγὸς Ἐρινὺν / παρὰ τῶν πρότερον φθιμένων ἄτην / ἑτέραν ἐπάγουσαν ἐπ’ ἄτῃ
          boâi gàr loigòs Erinùn / parà tôn próteron phthiménōn átēn / hetéran epágousan ep’ átēi
          Murder cries out on the Fury, which from those killed before brings one ruin after another.
      9. in the power of
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 8.29.2
          νῦν τε παρὰ τῷ βαρβάρῳ τοσοῦτο δυνάμεθα ὥστε ἐπ’ ἡμῖν ἐστι τῆς γῆς ἐστερῆσθαι καὶ πρὸς ἠνδραποδίσθαι ὑμέας
          nûn te parà tôi barbárōi tosoûto dunámetha hṓste ep’ hēmîn esti tês gês esterêsthai kaì pròs ēndrapodísthai huméas
          And now we bear such weight with the foreigner that it is in our power to have you deprived of your lands and enslaved.
      10. according to
        • 384 BCE – 322 BCE, Demosthenes, Against Timocrates 56
          τὰς δίκας καὶ τὰς διαίτας, ὅσαι ἐγένοντο ἐπὶ τοῖς νόμοις ἐν δημοκρατουμένῃ τῇ πόλει, κυρίας εἶναι
          tàs díkas kaì tàs diaítas, hósai egénonto epì toîs nómois en dēmokratouménēi têi pólei, kurías eînai
          Judgements and awards given according to the law while the government was democratic, shall be valid.
      11. (of conditions or circumstances) in, with
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 4.175
          σέο δ’ ὀστέα πύσει ἄρουρα / κειμένου ἐν Τροίῃ ἀτελευτήτῳ ἐπὶ ἔργῳ
          séo d’ ostéa púsei ároura / keiménou en Troíēi ateleutḗtōi epì érgōi
          And the earth will rot your bones as you lie in the land of Troy with your task unfinished.
        • 406 BCE, Sophocles, Oedipus at Colonus 1554
          κἀπ’ εὐπραξίᾳ / μέμνησθέ μου θανόντος εὐτυχεῖς ἀεί
          kap’ eupraxíāi / mémnēsthé mou thanóntos eutukheîs aeí
          And in your prosperity, remember me in my death, and be fortunate evermore.
        • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Cyropaedia 1.3.12
          τοσαύτας μὲν αὐτοῖς εὐθυμίας παρεῖχεν ἐπὶ τῷ δείπνῳ
          tosaútas mèn autoîs euthumías pareîkhen epì tôi deípnōi
          He furnished them such amusement at dinner.
      12. (of time, never in proper Attic) at, on
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 8.529
          ἀλλ’ ἤτοι ἐπὶ νυκτὶ φυλάξομεν ἡμέας αὐτούς
          all’ ḗtoi epì nuktì phuláxomen hēméas autoús
          Surely at night we will guard our own selves.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 13.234
          ἀλλ’ αὖθι κυνῶν μέλπηθρα γένοιτο, / ὅς τις ἐπ’ ἤματι τῷδε ἑκὼν μεθίῃσι μάχεσθαι
          all’ aûthi kunôn mélpēthra génoito, / hós tis ep’ ḗmati tôide hekṑn methíēisi mákhesthai
          But here may he, who on this day of his own will shrinks from fight, become the sport of dogs.
      13. (of time) after
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 4.164.3
          μαθὼν δὲ ἐπ’ ἐξεργασμένοισι τὸ μαντήιον ἐὸν τοῦτο
          mathṑn dè ep’ exergasménoisi tò mantḗion eòn toûto
          Then, perceiving after the deed had been done that this was the meaning of the oracle []
      14. (expressing a cause) on account of, for
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 21.585
          ἦ τ’ ἔτι πολλὰ τετεύξεται ἄλγε’ ἐπ’ αὐτῇ
          ê t’ éti pollà teteúxetai álge’ ep’ autêi
          Many be the woes that shall yet be wrought because of her.
      15. (expressing a purpose) for
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 5.154
          ὃ δὲ τείρετο γήραϊ λυγρῷ, / υἱὸν δ’ οὐ τέκετ’ ἄλλον ἐπὶ κτεάτεσσι λιπέσθαι
          hò dè teíreto gḗraï lugrôi, / huiòn d’ ou téket’ állon epì kteátessi lipésthai
          And their father was fordone with grievous old age, and begat no other son to leave in charge of his possessions.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 18.44
          γαστέρες αἵδ’ αἰγῶν κέατ’ ἐν πυρί, τὰς ἐπὶ δόρπῳ / κατθέμεθα
          gastéres haíd’ aigôn kéat’ en purí, tàs epì dórpōi / katthémetha
          Here at the fire lie goats' paunches, which we set there for supper.
      16. (of a condition) on
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 1.60.3
          ἐνδεξαμένου δὲ τὸν λόγον καὶ ὁμολογήσαντος ἐπὶ τούτοισι Πεισιστράτου, μηχανῶνται δὴ ἐπὶ τῇ κατόδῳ πρῆγμα
          endexaménou dè tòn lógon kaì homologḗsantos epì toútoisi Peisistrátou, mēkhanôntai dḕ epì têi katódōi prêgma
          When this offer was accepted by Pisistratus, who agreed on these terms [with Megacles], they devised a plan to bring Pisistratus back.
        • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Hellenica
          ἀλλ’ ἐποιοῦντο εἰρήνην ἐφ’ ᾧ τά τε μακρὰ τείχη καὶ τὸν Πειραιᾶ καθελόντας
          all’ epoioûnto eirḗnēn eph’ hôi tá te makrà teíkhē kaì tòn Peiraiâ kathelóntas
          They offered to make peace on the condition that the Athenians destroy the long walls and the walls of Piraeus.
      17. for (i.e. in exchange for)
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 10.304
          τίς κέν μοι τόδε ἔργον ὑποσχόμενος τελέσειε / δώρῳ ἔπι μεγάλῳ
          tís kén moi tóde érgon huposkhómenos teléseie / dṓrōi épi megálōi
          Who is there now that would promise me this deed and bring it to pass for a great gift?
      18. (of a name) for
        • 428 BCE – 347 BCE, Plato, R 470b
          ἐπὶ μὲν οὖν τῇ τοῦ οἰκείου ἔχθρᾳ στάσις κέκληται, ἐπὶ δὲ τῇ τοῦ ἀλλοτρίου πόλεμος
          epì mèn oûn têi toû oikeíou ékhthrāi stásis kéklētai, epìtêi toû allotríou pólemos
          Now the term employed for the hostility of the friendly is faction, and for that of the alien is war.
      19. in charge of
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 20.209
          Ὀδυσῆος ἀμύμονος, ὅς μ’ ἐπὶ βουσὶν / εἷσ’ ἔτι τυτθὸν ἐόντα
          Odusêos amúmonos, hós m’ epì bousìn / heîs’ éti tutthòn eónta
          Blameless Odysseus, who set me in charge of his cattle []
    3. (+ accusative)
      1. onto (the upper surface of)
        ἀνέβαινεν ἐπὶ τὸν ἵππον
        anébainen epì tòn híppon
        He got up onto the horse.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 6.386
          ἀλλ’ ἐπὶ πύργον ἔβη μέγαν Ἰλίου
          all’ epì púrgon ébē mégan Ilíou
          But she went onto the great wall of Ilios.
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 1.131.2
          οἳ δὲ νομίζουσι Διὶ μὲν ἐπὶ τὰ ὑψηλότατα τῶν ὀρέων ἀναβαίνοντες θυσίας ἔρδειν
          hoì dè nomízousi Diì mèn epì tà hupsēlótata tôn oréōn anabaínontes thusías érdein
          They are accustomed to go up onto the highest peaks of the mountains to offer sacrifices to Zeus.
      2. to
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 1.12
          ὃ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰς ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν λυσόμενός τε θύγατρα
          hò gàr êlthe thoàs epì nêas Akhaiôn lusómenós te thúgatra
          For he had come to the swift ships of the Achaeans to free his daughter.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 3.421
          αἳ δ’ ὅτ’ Ἀλεξάνδροιο δόμον περικαλλέ’ ἵκοντο, ἀμφίπολοι μὲν ἔπειτα θοῶς ἐπὶ ἔργα τράποντο
          haì d’ hót’ Alexándroio dómon perikallé’ híkonto, amphípoloi mèn épeita thoôs epì érga tráponto
          Now when they were come to the beautiful palace of Alexander, the handmaids turned forthwith to their tasks.
      3. up to, as far as
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 4.181.1
          ὑπὲρ δὲ τῆς θηριώδεος ὀφρύη ψάμμης κατήκει παρατείνουσα ἀπὸ Θηβέων τῶν Αἰγυπτιέων ἐπ’ Ἡρακλέας στήλας
          hupèr dè tês thēriṓdeos ophrúē psámmēs katḗkei parateínousa apò Thēbéōn tôn Aiguptiéōn ep’ Hērakléas stḗlas
          Beyond this wild beasts' haunt runs a ridge of sand that stretches from Thebes of Egypt up to the Pillars of Heracles.
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 23.248
          οὐ γάρ πω πάντων ἐπὶ πείρατ’ ἀέθλων / ἤλθομεν
          ou gár pō pántōn epì peírat’ aéthlōn / ḗlthomen
          We have not yet come to the end of all our trials.
      4. (with a person) to before, into the presence of
        • 70 CE – 110 CE, The Gospel of Matthew 10:18
          καὶ ἐπὶ ἡγεμόνας δὲ καὶ βασιλεῖς ἀχθήσεσθε ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ
          kaì epì hēgemónas dè kaì basileîs akhthḗsesthe héneken emoû
          Yes, and you will be brought before governors and kings for my sake.
      5. (of an army) deep
        • 460 BCE – 395 BCE, Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War 4.93
          ἐπ’ ἀσπίδας δὲ πέντε μὲν καὶ εἴκοσι Θηβαῖοι ἐτάξαντο
          ep’ aspídas dè pénte mèn kaì eíkosi Thēbaîoi etáxanto
          The Thebans formed twenty-five shields deep.
      6. to or into a certain side
        • 460 BCE – 420 BCE, Herodotus, Histories 5.74
          Χαλκιδέες τε ἐπὶ τὰ ἕτερα ἐσίνοντο ἐπιόντες χώρους τῆς Ἀττικῆς
          Khalkidées te epì tà hétera esínonto epióntes khṓrous tês Attikês
          The Chalcidians however attacked on another side and raided lands in Attica.
      7. against
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 5.590
          τοὺς δ’ Ἕκτωρ ἐνόησε κατὰ στίχας, ὦρτο δ’ ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς / κεκλήγων
          toùs d’ Héktōr enóēse katà stíkhas, ôrto d’ ep’ autoùs / keklḗgōn
          But Hector marked them across the ranks, and rushed against them shouting aloud.
      8. over
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 2.159
          οὕτω δὴ οἶκον δὲ φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν / Ἀργεῖοι φεύξονται ἐπ’ εὐρέα νῶτα θαλάσσης
          hoútō dḕ oîkon dè phílēn es patrída gaîan / Argeîoi pheúxontai ep’ euréa nôta thalássēs
          Is it thus indeed that the Argives are to flee their dear native land over the broad back of the sea?
      9. (of time) for, during
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 2.299
          τλῆτε φίλοι, καὶ μείνατ’ ἐπὶ χρόνον
          tlête phíloi, kaì meínat’ epì khrónon
          Endure, my friends, and abide for a time.
      10. (of time) up to, until
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 7.288
          ἔνθα μὲν ἐν φύλλοισι φίλον τετιημένος ἦτορ / εὗδον παννύχιος καὶ ἐπ’ ἠῶ
          éntha mèn en phúlloisi phílon tetiēménos êtor / heûdon pannúkhios kaì ep’ ēô
          So there among the leaves I slept, my heart sore stricken, the whole night through, until the morning.
      11. for (the purpose of)
        • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Odyssey 3.421
          ἀλλ’ ἄγ’ ὁ μὲν πεδίονδ’ ἐπὶ βοῦν, ἴτω
          all’ ág’ ho mèn pedíond’ epì boûn, ítō
          Come now, let one go to the plain for a heifer.
      12. for (with respect to)
        • 442 BCE, Sophocles, Antigone 889
          ἡμεῖς γὰρ ἁγνοὶ τοὐπὶ τήνδε τὴν κόρην
          hēmeîs gàr hagnoì toupì tḗnde tḕn kórēn
          Our hands are clean with respect to this girl.
      13. over (in command of)
        • 430 BCE – 354 BCE, Xenophon, Cyropaedia 4.5.58
          ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς πεζοὺς τῶν ὁμοτίμων ἀνθ’ αὑτοῦ ἕκαστον καθιστάναι ἄλλον ἄρχοντα τῶν ὁμοτίμων
          epìtoùs pezoùs tôn homotímōn anth’ hautoû hékaston kathistánai állon árkhonta tôn homotímōn
          He also instructed each one of the newly-mounted officers to appoint some other peer to take his place of command over the infantry of the peers.
    4. (without a noun) as well, besides (often with δέ ())
      • 800 BCE – 600 BCE, Homer, Iliad 18.529
        οἳ μὲν τὰ προϊδόντες ἐπέδραμον, ὦκα δ’ ἔπειτα / τάμνοντ’ ἀμφὶ βοῶν ἀγέλας καὶ πώεα καλὰ / ἀργεννέων οἰῶν, κτεῖνον δ’ ἐπὶ μηλοβοτῆρας
        hoì mèn tà proïdóntes epédramon, ôka d’ épeita / támnont’ amphì boôn agélas kaì pṓea kalà / argennéōn oiôn, kteînon d’ epì mēlobotêras
        But the liers-in-wait, when they saw these coming on, rushed forth against them and speedily cut off the herds of cattle and fair flocks of white-fleeced sheep, and slew the herdsmen as well.

    For usage in composition, see ἐπι- (epi-).

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