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This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative forms[edit]


From Proto-Indo-European *h₂én (up, on high), but the exact formation is disputed due to the final vowel in descendants that reflect *ana. According to Kroonen, who derives both *an and *ana from a pre-Germanic *h₂enh̥₂, the final vowel was lost by regular sound change but remained in compound forms, whence it was restored in some of the daughter languages.[1] Alternative explanations for the final vowel include a fossilized suffix *-o/*-ó of uncertain (allative?) function, as in *anda.




  1. on, upon [+dative]
  2. onto [+accusative]



  1. on, onto


  • Proto-West Germanic: *an, *ana
  • Proto-Norse: ᚨᚾ (an), ᚨᚾᚨ (ana)
    • Old Norse: á
      • Icelandic: á
      • Faroese: á
      • Norwegian Nynorsk: å (dialectal)
      • Elfdalian: ą̊
      • Old Swedish: ā
        • Swedish: å, a (dialectal)
      • Old Danish: ā
        • Danish: å (dialectal)
  • Gothic: 𐌰𐌽𐌰 (ana)


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*ana”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 26