młody

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Lower Sorbian

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *moldъ.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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młody (comparative młodšy, superlative nejmłodšy)

  1. young

Declension

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Antonyms

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Old Polish

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *moldъ. First attested in the 14th century.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): (10th–15th CE) /mɫɔdɨː/
  • IPA(key): (15th CE) /mɫɔdɨ/

Adjective

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młody (comparative młodszy)

  1. (attested in Lesser Poland) young (recently born)
  2. (attested in Lesser Poland) young; small
    • Beginning of the 15th century, Łukasz z Wielkiego Koźmina, Kazania gnieźnieńskie[3], Krakow, page 172a:
      Alle szø ga po grzechu tego barszo bogø, yszeszmy iusz ten tho dar fszythczy straczyly, a tho vygøfszy dzatky mlode
      [Ale się ja po grzechu tego barzo boję, iżesmy już ten to dar wszytcy stracili, a to wyjąwszy dziatki młode]
  3. (attested in Lesser Poland) little (of a sibling, younger in age)
    • 1394, Adam Chmiel, editor, Księgi radzieckie kazimierskie[4], Krakow, page 317:
      Item mlody Wolek
      [Item młody Wołek]
  4. (relational) youth (of or relating to the early years of life)
    • 1877-1881 [1437], Władysław Wisłocki, editor, Katalog rękopisów Biblioteki Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, number 228, page 85:
      Mlodich lat annis pubescentibus
      [Młodych lat annis pubescentibus]
  5. (attested in Greater Poland) new, not old; fresh
    • 1858 [c. 1408], Wojciech Szurkowski z Ponieca, “Wyroki sądów miejskich czyli ortyle [Urban court rulings i.e. "Ortyls"]”, in Wacław Aleksander Maciejowski, editor, Historia prawodawstw słowiańskich [History of Slavic lawmaking], volume 6, Poniec, page 37:
      Obwyny-ly mloda rada szthara
      [Obwinili młoda rada starą]
  6. immature
    • 1900 [1437], Józef Rostafiński, editor, Symbola ad historiam naturalem medii aevi = Średniowieczna historya naturalna w Polsce. Ps 2[5], number 2463:
      Mlodi groch ascania
      [Młody groch ascania]

Noun

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młody m animacy unattested

  1. (nominalized, attested in Lesser Poland) young person
    • 1939 [end of the 14th century], Ryszard Ganszyniec, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Kubica, Ludwik Bernacki, editors, Psałterz florjański łacińsko-polsko-niemiecki [Sankt Florian Psalter]‎[6], Krakow: Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich, z zasiłkiem Sejmu Śląskiego [The Ossoliński National Institute: with the benefit of the Silesian Parliament], pages 77, 69:
      Mlode gich snadl ogen (iuvenes eorum comedit ignis)
      [Młode jich śniadł ogień (iuvenes eorum comedit ignis)]

Derived terms

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adjectives
nouns
verbs

Descendants

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References

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Polish

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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Inherited from Old Polish młody.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈmwɔ.dɨ/
  • (Middle Polish) IPA(key): /ˈmɫɔ.dɨ/
  • Audio 1:(file)
  • Audio 2:(file)
  • Rhymes: -ɔdɨ
  • Syllabification: mło‧dy

Adjective

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młody (comparative młodszy, superlative najmłodszy, Middle Polish superlative namłodszy, derived adverb młodo)

  1. young (in the early part of growth or life; born not long ago; characteristic of such a person or thing)
    Antonym: stary
  2. young; new, fresh (having been in a particular function or type of person for very few years)
    Antonym: stary
  3. young (at an early stage of existence or development; having recently come into existence)
    Antonym: stary
  4. (not comparable, of fruit, crops, etc.) new (having grown in the current season)
    Synonyms: nowy, tegoroczny
    Antonym: zeszłoroczny
  5. (of products) young; immature
    Synonym: niedojrzały
  6. (of plants) young, budding
  7. (relational, Middle Polish) youth; early
    Synonym: wczesny
  8. (Middle Polish) innocent
    Synonym: niewinny
  9. (Middle Polish) crisp; perky; durable
  10. (Middle Polish) delicate, weak
    Synonyms: delikatny, słaby
  11. (Middle Polish) junior (having a lower position in a hierarchy)
  12. (Middle Polish) inexperienced
    Synonym: niedoświadczony
  13. (transitive, Middle Polish) The meaning of this term is uncertain.
    • 1532, Bartłomiej z Bydgoszczy, Słownik łacińsko-polski[7], page 156b:
      Tener, mdly, mollis, fragilis, flexibilis, mlody, czudny
      [Tener, mdly, mollis, fragilis, flexibilis, młody, cudny]
    • 1588, A. Calepinus, Dictionarium decem linguarum[8], page 841b:
      Praetener – Barzo młodi, czienki.
      [Praetener – Barzo młody, cienki.]

Declension

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Derived terms

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adjectives
adverb
interjection
nouns
verbs

Trivia

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According to Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej (1990), młody is one of the most used words in Polish, appearing 26 times in scientific texts, 29 times in news, 43 times in essays, 61 times in fiction, and 47 times in plays, each out of a corpus of 100,000 words, totaling 206 times, making it the 268th most common word in a corpus of 500,000 words.[1]

Noun

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młody m pers (female equivalent młoda)

  1. (nominalized, colloquial) young boy
  2. (nominalized, Middle Polish) descendant (one who is the progeny of someone)
    Synonym: potomek
  3. (nominalized) bridegroom, groom (man in the context of his own wedding; one who is going to marry or has just been married)
    Synonyms: nowożeniec, oblubieniec, pan młody
  4. (nominalized, in the plural) newlyweds (newly married couple)
    Synonyms: młoda para, nowożeńcy, oblubieńcy, państwo młodzi

Declension

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References

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  1. ^ Ida Kurcz (1990) “młody”, in Słownik frekwencyjny polszczyzny współczesnej [Frequency dictionary of the Polish language]‎[1] (in Polish), volume 1, Kraków, Warszawa: Polska Akademia Nauk. Instytut Języka Polskiego, page 250

Further reading

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  • młody in Wielki słownik języka polskiego, Instytut Języka Polskiego PAN
  • młody in Polish dictionaries at PWN
  • Maria Renata Mayenowa, Stanisław Rospond, Witold Taszycki, Stefan Hrabec, Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (2010-2023) “młody”, in Słownik Polszczyzny XVI Wieku [A Dictionary of 16th Century Polish]
  • Wiesław Morawski (18.07.2008) “MŁODY”, in Elektroniczny Słownik Języka Polskiego XVII i XVIII Wieku [Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the XVII and XVIII Century]
  • Samuel Bogumił Linde (1807–1814) “młody”, in Słownik języka polskiego[9]
  • Aleksander Zdanowicz (1861) “młody”, in Słownik języka polskiego, Wilno 1861[10]
  • A. Kryński, W. Niedźwiedzki, editors (1908), “młody”, in Słownik języka polskiego (in Polish), volume 4, Warsaw, page 1009

Upper Sorbian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *moldъ.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈmwɔdɨ/
  • Rhymes: -ɔdɨ
  • Syllabification: mło‧dy

Adjective

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młody (comparative młódši, superlative najmłódši, absolute superlative nanajmłódši, excessive přemłody, adverb młodźe)

  1. young

Declension

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References

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