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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Italic, Celtic and Greek point to PIE *eḱs. Balto-Slavic *iś and *iź (either could be word-sandhi variant of the other) forms have unexplained initial *i-. However, due to aspirates in the old compounds such as ἔσχατος (éskhatos) and ἐχθός (ekhthós), a pre-form *h₁eǵʰs is needed.



  1. out

Derived terms[edit]


  • Albanian: *its
    • Albanian: ith (back, backward) (obsolete, present as part of bythë), ish (former) (< ek's)
  • Balto-Slavic: *iź, *iś
    • Latvian: iz
    • Lithuanian:
    • Old Prussian: is
    • Slavic: *jьz (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *exs, *exs-
  • Hellenic: *eks, *eks-
  • Italic: *eks


  • Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume I, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 433