mr

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Egyptian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Highly disputed etymology. Hypotheses include:

Noun[edit]

U23 m&r O24

 m

  1. pyramid (monumental building) [from the Pyramid Texts through the Saite Period]
    • c. 1550 BCE, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, problem 59:
      Ab m&r O24 pr r
      D54
      m w s pr n
      f
      i m i i m V20 Z1 Z1
      mr pr-m-ws n.f jmy m 12
      A pyramid, its height 12 [cubits]
  2. (rare) heap of corpses [20th Dynasty]
    • c. 1180 BCE, Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu, Inscription of the Year 5, lines 35-36:
      p t
      r
      i M7 D6 b i n
      nDs
      i m W Z2ss
      r
      q A28 Y1
      n
      p t
      pt
      n
      U19
      nw W W
      D40
      t tyw i i W Z2ss
      W
      D52
      t
      A1 Z3
      Hr Z1 st t
      pr
      pA
      z
      G3 im
      T30
      [[ W Z2ss
      z
      t Z2ss
      ]] ir w m U23 im
      [[ r ]]
      O24 [[ Z1 ]]
      Z1 Z1
      Hr Z1 pA W Z2ss
      t zA W N21 Z1
      im
      t tyw pH t y
      n
      sw t A42 q
      n
      D40
      im
      H a
      F51 F51 F51
      f
      nb
      A40 T21 sxm im
      t
      y
      D40
      mi t
      t
      Y1V
      mn
      n
      T
      W A40 sw
      t
      bit
      t
      <
      ra wsr C10 N36 i mn
      n
      > zA ra <
      C2 ms z
      z
      HqA iwn
      >
      ptrj bjn jm.w r qꜣ n(j) pt nw tꜣy.w wmt ḥr st pꜣ smꜣ.w st jrw m mrw ḥr pꜣ.w zꜣtw m tꜣ pḥtj n(j) nswt qn m ḥꜥw.f nb wꜥ sḫmtj mjtj mnṯw nswt-bjtj wsr-mꜣꜥt-rꜥ-mr(y)-jmn zꜣ-rꜥ rꜥ-ms-s(w)-ḥqꜣ-jwnw
      Behold, they were in badness to the height of the sky, as their thick crowd was collected upon the place of their slaughter, and they were made into corpse-heaps on their soil by the might of the king, valiant in his limbs, the only lord, powerful like Montu, Dual King Usermaatre-Meryamun, Son of Ra Ramesses, Ruler of Heliopolis.
Inflection[edit]
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Possibly from a Proto-Afro-Asiatic *m-r (river, channel). Compare South Omotic *mir- (“river”), with reflexes including Aari mɨri (river, stream) and Dime mɪ́rɛ (river). A possible Semitic cognate is Sabaean [script needed] (mr, part of an irrigation system). Possible Cushitic cognates include Borana Oromo mērī (watering trough), Tsamai mīre (pond), and possible Chadic cognates include Fali mirə̂ (river), Muskum mìrà (oxbow lake, marigot).

Noun[edit]

U7
r
N36

 m

  1. canal, ditch, waterway [since the Pyramid Texts]
    • c. 24th century BCE, Pyramid of King Unas, west wall of the main corridor, Pyramid Text spell 317, sections 4-5:
      M18 n <
      wn
      n
      i s
      > r mr r
      S
      Z2
      f
      Z11 w i d
      b
      N20
      A
      g b mw m mH
      t
      mw wr&r&t
      r st t
      pr
      Htp
      t p
      w
      Y1
      wA D wAD t s x
      t
      sxt Z3A Z11 t Ax x t
      N18
      jj.n wnjs r mrw.f jm(j)w jdb ꜣgb(w) mḥt wrt
      r st ḥtpw wꜣḏt sḫwt jmt ꜣḫt
      Unas has come to his canals at the shore of the waters of the great flood,
      to the place of peace with green fields in the place where the sun rises.
  2. a pond or pool, especially an artifical one [since the Pyramid Texts]
  3. metal libation bowl or basin
  4. Misspelling of mw (water). [New Kingdom]
Usage notes[edit]
The distinction between the abbreviated mr (canal, pond, bowl)
N36
or
N36
Z1
— and š (pool, lake, bowl)
S
or
S
Z1
— is not always clear.
Inflection[edit]
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic. Cognate with Proto-Semitic *mir(Vʔ)- (bull): compare Akkadian [script needed] (mīrtu, young cow), [script needed] (mīru, young bull), Hebrew מְרִיא (mərīʾ, fatted steer). Possible Cushitic cognates include Hadiyya mōr-â (bull), Mbugu ki-mole, ki-more (ox, bull), possible Omotic cognates include Wolaytta mārā (young bull), Yemsa omoru (bull), and possible Chadic cognates include Mafa maray (sacrificial bull), Mofu-Gudur maray (fattened bull), Mafa mari (bull).

Noun[edit]

U7
r
D52 E1

 m

  1. (fighting) bull [Middle Kingdom]
Inflection[edit]
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

U7
r
E1

 m

  1. (rare) Abbreviation of mr-wr. [Greco-Roman Period]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic. Probable Berber cognates include Tazerwalt Tashelhit ta-märr-it (pain, agony), Tagargrent i-mur-ǝn (labour pains), and Kabyle u-mr-an (sorrows), a-mur (colic, stomachache), and a-mrir (embarrassment, great difficulty). Cushitic cognates include Oromo marar (to be sick), Baiso marni (to be sad), and Sidamo marar-s (to be sick). A likely Omotic cognate is Yemsa mer-o (illness).

Verb[edit]

U23 m r
nDs

2-lit.

  1. to be ill, to be sick or diseased
  2. to suffer, to be in pain
  3. to be painful, to sting
  4. to be harsh or fierce
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1926-1961) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, ISBN 3050022647
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, ISBN 0-900416-32-7
  • Takács, Gábor (1999-2008) Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian, volume 3, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 9789004115385, page 361–372, 392–395
  • Allen, James, A New Concordance of the Pyramid Texts, Vol. III, PT 317.4–5 (Pyr. 508a–508b), Unas
  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, revised second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-74144-6, page 213