mr

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Egyptian[edit]

Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Highly disputed etymology. Hypotheses include:

Noun[edit]

U23m&r O24

 m

  1. pyramid (monumental building) [from the Pyramid Texts through the Saite Period]
    • c. 1550 BCE, Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, problem 59:
      Abm&r O24prr
      D54
      mwsprn
      f
      imiimV20Z1Z1
      mr pr-m-ws n.f jmy m 12
      A pyramid, its height 12 [cubits]
  2. (rare) heap of corpses [20th Dynasty]
    • c. 1180 BCE, Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu, Inscription of the Year 5, lines 35-36:
      p t
      r
      i M7 D6b i n
      nDs
      i m W Z2ss
      r
      q A28 Y1
      n
      p t
      pt
      n
      U19
      nw W W
      D40
      t tyw i i W Z2ss
      W
      D52
      t
      A1 Z3
      Hr Z1 stt
      pr
      pA
      z
      G3im
      T30
      [[W Z2ss
      z
      t Z2ss
      ]]irw m U23im
      Ba15s r Ba15as
      O24Ba15s Z1 Ba15as
      Z1 Z1
      Hr Z1 pAW Z2ss
      t zA W N21 Z1
      im
      t tyw pHt y
      n
      swtA42q
      n
      D40
      im
      Ha
      F51 F51 F51
      f
      nb
      A40 T21 sxmim
      t
      y
      D40
      mit
      t
      Y1V
      mn
      n
      T
      W A40 sw
      t
      bit
      t
      <
      rawsr C10 N36imn
      n
      >zAra<
      C2 ms z
      z
      HqAiwn
      >
      ptrj bjn jm.w r qꜣ n(j) pt nw tꜣy.w wmt ḥr st pꜣ smꜣ.w st jrw m mrw ḥr pꜣ.w zꜣtw m tꜣ pḥtj n(j) nswt qn m ḥꜥw.f nb wꜥ sḫmtj mjtj mnṯw nswt-bjtj wsr-mꜣꜥt-rꜥ-mr(y)-jmn zꜣ-rꜥ rꜥ-ms-s(w)-ḥqꜣ-jwnw
      Behold, they were in woe to the height of the sky, as their thick crowd was collected upon the place of their slaughter, and they were made into corpse-heaps on their soil by the might of the king, valiant in his limbs, the only lord, powerful like Montu, Dual King Usermaatre-Meryamun, Son of Ra Ramesses, Ruler of Heliopolis.
Inflection[edit]
Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

Possibly from a Proto-Afro-Asiatic *m-r (river, channel). Compare South Omotic *mir- (“river”), with reflexes including Aari mɨri (river, stream) and Dime mɪ́rɛ (river). A possible Semitic cognate is Sabaean 𐩣𐩧(mr, part of an irrigation system). Possible Cushitic cognates include Borana Oromo mērī (watering trough), Tsamai mīre (pond), and possible Chadic cognates include Fali mirə̂ (river), Muskum mìrà (oxbow lake, marigot).

Noun[edit]

U7
r
N36

 m

  1. canal, ditch, waterway [since the Pyramid Texts]
    • c. 2353 BCE – 2323 BCE, Pyramid Texts of Unas — west wall of the corridor, line 10–20, spell 317.4–5:[1]
      M18n<
      wn
      n
      is
      >rmrr
      S
      Z2
      f
      Z11wid
      b
      N20
      A
      gbmwmmH
      t
      mwwr&r&t
      rstt
      pr
      Htp
      t p
      w
      Y1
      wADwADtsx
      t
      sxtZ3AZ11tAxx t
      N18
      jj.n wnjs r mrw.f jm(j)w jdb ꜣgb(w) mḥt wrt
      r st ḥtpw wꜣḏt sḫwt jmt ꜣḫt
      Unas has come to his canals at the shore of the waters of the great flood,
      to the place of peace with green fields in the place where the sun rises.
  2. a pond or pool, especially an artificial one [since the Pyramid Texts]
  3. metal libation bowl or basin
  4. Misspelling of mw (water). [New Kingdom]
Usage notes[edit]
The distinction between the abbreviated mr (canal, pond, bowl)
N36
or
N36
Z1
— and š (pool, lake, bowl)
S
or
S
Z1
— is not always clear.
Inflection[edit]
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic. Cognate with Proto-Semitic *mir(Vʔ)- (bull): compare Akkadian [script needed] (mīrtu, young cow), [script needed] (mīru, young bull), Hebrew מְרִיא(mərīʾ, fatted steer). Possible Cushitic cognates include Hadiyya mōr-â (bull), Mbugu ki-mole, ki-more (ox, bull), possible Omotic cognates include Wolaytta mārā (young bull), Yemsa omoru (bull), and possible Chadic cognates include Mafa maray (sacrificial bull), Mofu-Gudur maray (fattened bull), Mafa mari (bull).

Noun[edit]

U7
r
D52E1

 m

  1. (fighting) bull [Middle Kingdom]
Inflection[edit]
Alternative forms[edit]
Derived terms[edit]

Proper noun[edit]

U7
r
E1

 m

  1. (rare) Abbreviation of mr-wr (Mnevis). [Greco-Roman Period]

Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Afro-Asiatic. Probable Berber cognates include Tazerwalt Tashelhit ta-märr-it (pain, agony), Tagargrent i-mur-ǝn (labour pains), and Kabyle u-mr-an (sorrows), a-mur (colic, stomachache), and a-mrir (embarrassment, great difficulty). Cushitic cognates include Oromo marar (to be sick), Baiso marni (to be sad), and Sidamo marar-s (to be sick). A likely Omotic cognate is Yemsa mer-o (illness). And compare the root Arabic م ر ض(m-r-ḍ, related to ailment).

Verb[edit]

U23mr
nDs

 2-lit.

  1. (intransitive) to be(come) ill, to be(come) sick or diseased
  2. (intransitive) to suffer, to (come to) be in pain
  3. (intransitive) to be(come) painful, to sting
  4. (intransitive) to be(come) harsh or fierce
Inflection[edit]
Derived terms[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Noun[edit]

U23mr
nDs

 m

  1. ailment
  2. pain
Inflection[edit]

References[edit]

  • Erman, Adolf; Grapow, Hermann (1926–1961) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN
  • Faulkner, Raymond (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN
  • Takács, Gábor (1999-2008) Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian, volume 3, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 361–372, 392–395
  • Allen, James (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, second edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 213
  • Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 146
  1. ^ Allen, James (2013) A New Concordance of the Pyramid Texts, volume III, Providence: Brown University, PT 317.4–5 (Pyr. 508a–508b), W