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- Ranks are sometimes assigned to well-studied lines of taxa, such as those leading to Homo. As the assignment of 'order' to Therapsida and 'class' to Mammalia (placed under Therapsida) shows, they are no longer of much utility.
- The clades themselves are periodically invented and reinvented, defined and redefined, circumscribed and recircumscribed, and sometimes abandoned.
- (clade): Eukaryota - superkingdom; Animalia - kingdom; Bilateria - subkingdom; Deuterostomia - infrakingdom; Chordata - phylum; Vertebrata - subphylum; Gnathostomata - infraphylum; Tetrapoda - superclass; Reptiliomorpha, Amniota, Synapsidomorpha, Synapsida - clades; Pelycosauria - informal group; Eupelycosauria - clade; Therapsida - order; Theriodontia, Cynodontia - clades