Reconstruction:Proto-Celtic/garyeti

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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Celtic[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *ǵeh₂r- (to call, cry).

Verb[edit]

*garyeti[1]

  1. to cry
  2. to shout

Inflection[edit]

The conjugation has been subject to much remodelling in Celtic. *ǵeh₂r- should have produced a subjunctive stem gāra- with a long ā, and **ǵi-ǵeh₂r- should have produced a future stem *gigarā-, but these are not seen in Old Irish, from which the following by-forms are apparent:

Thematic present, t-preterite
Active voice
Present Imperfect Future Preterite
1st singular *garyū *garyennem *gixrāsū ?
2nd singular *garyesi *garyītū *gixrāsesi ?
3rd singular *garyeti *garye(to) *gixrāseti *gart
1st plural *garyomos *garyemmets *gixrāsomos ?
2nd plural *garyete *garyetes, *garyeswīs *gixrāsete ?
3rd plural *garyonti *garyentets *gixrāsonti ?
Pres. subjunctive Past subjunctive Imperative
1st singular *garasū ?
2nd singular *garasesi ? *garye
3rd singular *garaseti ?
1st plural *garasomos ?
2nd plural *garasete ? *garyete
3rd plural *garasonti ?
Passive voice
Present Imperfect Future Preterite
1st singular *garyūr *gixrāsūr
2nd singular *garyetar *gixrāsetar
3rd singular *garyetor *garyetey *gixrāsetor *garto
1st plural *garyommor *gixrāsommor
2nd plural *garyedwe *gixrāsedwe
3rd plural *garyontor *garyentits *gixrāsontor *gartūnts
Pres. subjunctive Past subjunctive Imperative
1st singular *garasūr
2nd singular *garasetar
3rd singular *garasetor
1st plural *garasommor
2nd plural *garasedwe
3rd plural *garasontor

Related terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

  • Proto-Brythonic: [Term?]
  • Old Irish: gairid

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ranko Matasović (2009), “*gar-yo-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 153