Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. ice, frost

Derived terms[edit]

  • *h₁eyH-kos[3]
    • Indo-Iranian: *Haykʰas (with laryngeal metathesis)
      • Iranian: *Hayxah (ice), *Haysah (cold(ness))
        • Central Iranian:
          • Avestan: 𐬀𐬉𐬑𐬀(aēxa, ice), 𐬌𐬯𐬎(isu, icy, coldness)
            • Middle Persian: [Book Pahlavi needed] (ʾys /*ēs, *īs/, coldness)
        • Northeastern Iranian:
          • Ossetian:
            Digor: ех (ex)
            Iron: их (ix)
          • Sogdian: [Term?] (/*yaxn/)
            Christian Sogdian: ܝܟܢܘ(yxnw /yaxn/, ice)
            Buddhist Sogdian: [script needed] (yyδγn /(y)ēδxān/, icebox, glaicier), [script needed] (ynγynʾk /yanxēnē/, icy)
            Manichaen Sogdian: 𐫏𐫑𐫗𐫏𐫏(yxnyy /yaxnē/, left over food)
            • Yagnobi: ех (ex)
            • Pashto: يخني(yaxní, cold; frost; pottage, soupe)
            • Persian: یخنی(yaxnī, a kind of food; cold cooked meat;)
              • Arabic: يخني(yaḵni, stew)
        • Southeastern Iranian:
          • Pashto: يخۍ(yaxáy) (maybe from Persian), اسۍ(asáy, hoar-frost; fog; mis)
          • Shughni–Yazgulami:
            • Sarikoli: [script needed] (īš, coldness)
          • Munji-Yidgha:
            • Yidgha: یاخ(yāx, cold)
        • Northwestern Iranian:
          • Baluchi: یخ(yax, cold; ice), لخ(lux, icy) (possibly)
          • Caspian:
            • Gilaki: یخ(yəx, ice)
            • Mazanderani: یخ(yax, ice)
          • Median:
        • Southwestern Iranian:
          • Middle Persian: [Term?]:
            Pazand 𐬫𐬀𐬑(yax, ice)
            • Persian: یخ(yax, ice)
  • *h₁iH-n̥-yós[2][4]
  • *h₁éyH-s-om (< *h₁éyH-s-os ~ *h₁iH-és-os?)[3]
    • Germanic: *īsą (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 287a
  2. 2.0 2.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*jь̀nьjь; *jь̀nьje”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 213
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*īsa-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 271
  4. 4.0 4.1 Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 252