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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Possibly from *mey- (to change).


*meyḱ- or *meyǵ-[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

  1. to mix

Derived terms[edit]

  • *méyḱ-t ~ *miḱ-ént (root aorist)[2][5]
    • Hellenic:
      • Ancient Greek: ἔμῐκτο (émikto), ἔμειξᾰ (émeixa)
  • *miḱ-sḱé-ti (*sḱé- inchoative present)[1][2][3][5][6][7]
    • Proto-Celtic: *miskati (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Germanic: *miskijaną (< *mihsk-) (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic: [Term?]
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *miśćáti
      • Proto-Indo-Aryan: *miśćáti
      • Proto-Iranian: *āmayxš-, *wimayxš- (< *meyǵ-)
        • Middle Persian: [script needed] (ʾ(ʾ)myxs-, to be mixed) (Manichaean), [script needed] (gwmyxs-, to be mixed, mingled) (Manichaean)
        • Parthian: [script needed] (ʾmyxs-, to be mixed with), [script needed] (wmyxs-, to be mixed)
        • Sogdian: [script needed] (wmxsk)
    • Proto-Italic: *mikskō
      • Latin: misceō (mix, blend) (see there for further descendants)
  • *moyḱ-éye- (causative)[2][8][9]
  • *méyḱ-s- (*s- desiderative)[2][5]
  • *meyḱ-ye- (innovative *ye- present)[2][10]
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Lithuanian: miēši (dilute, mix, ferment, sweeten)
  • *mi-né-ḱ- (innovative *né- present)[2]
  • *mi-néw-ḱ- (innovative *new- present)[2][5]
  • *méyḱ-tis[11]
  • *miḱ-rós[11]
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *miśras
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *mićrás (see there for further descendants)
  • *miḱ-sḱ-ó/éh₂- (deverbative from the present *sḱé- stem)[11][12]
  • *moyḱ-sḱ-o/eh₂- (o-grade deverbative from the present *sḱé- stem)[11]
    • Proto-Germanic: *maiskaz (mixture), *maiskō (mixture), *maiską (mixture) (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *mayȷ́-
      • Proto-Iranian: *āmayj-, *Hwimayȷ́-
        • (possibly) Ossetian:
          Iron: ызмис (yzmis, sand)
          Digor: ӕзменсӕ (æzmensæ, sand)
        • Middle Persian: [script needed] (ʾmyc- /āmēz-/, to mix), [script needed] (gwmyc- /gumēz-/, to mix, mingle), [script needed] (ʾmyc /āmiz/, a certain dish containing game meat, literally mixture),[4] [script needed] (ʾ(ʾ)myz-, to mix) (Manichaean) (see there for further descendants)
        • Parthian: [script needed] (ʾmyj- /āmēž-/, to mix)
        • Kurdish:
          Central Kurdish: ئامێژەن(amêjen, mixing)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 714
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Rix, Helmut, editor (2001) Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 428
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cheung, Johnny (2007) Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 261
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ačaṙean, Hračʿeay (1971–1979), “ամիճ”, in Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), 2nd edition, reprint of the original 1926–1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010), “μείγνυμι”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 919-920
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013), “*miskan-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 370
  7. 7.0 7.1 De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “misceō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 382
  8. 8.0 8.1 Derksen, Rick (2015) Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 300
  9. 9.0 9.1 Derksen, Rick (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 313
  10. 10.0 10.1 Derksen, Rick (2015) Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 317
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008) Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, pages 481-482
  12. 12.0 12.1 Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 273