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From Proto-Italic *mikskō (to mix), from Proto-Indo-European *miḱ-sḱé-, inchoative present of *meyǵ-, *meyḱ- (to mix). The second conjugation of this verb is unexplained. Cognate with Old High German miskian, miskan (to mix) (German mischen), Welsh mysgu (to mix), Ancient Greek μίγνυμι (mígnumi, to mix), Old Church Slavonic мѣсити (měsiti, to mix), Lithuanian mišti and maišyti (to mix), Sanskrit मिश्र (miśra, mixed), Persian آمیختن (âmixtan, mix); Old English māsc (mixture, mash). More at mash.[1]





misceō (present infinitive miscēre, perfect active miscuī, supine mixtum or mistum); second conjugation

  1. to mix
    Synonyms: commisceō, cōnfundō
  2. to mingle, intermingle
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Proverbs.14.13:
      Rīsus dolōre miscēbitur, et extrēma gaudiī lūctus occupat
      Laughter shall be mingled with sorrow, and mourning taketh hold of the end of joy.
      (Douay-Rheims trans., Challoner rev.: 1752 CE)
  3. (poetic) a disturbance of the natural order, as in a storm: to disturb, to throw into confusion, to confuse, confound, embroil
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 1.133–134:
      “Iam caelum terramque meō sine nūmine, ventī,
      miscēre, et tantās audētis tollere mōlēs?”
      “Now heaven and earth – without my divine assent, you winds! – you dare to disturb, and raise such swells [of seawater]?”
      (Neptune upbraids the winds.)


   Conjugation of misceō (second conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present misceō miscēs miscet miscēmus miscētis miscent
imperfect miscēbam miscēbās miscēbat miscēbāmus miscēbātis miscēbant
future miscēbō miscēbis miscēbit miscēbimus miscēbitis miscēbunt
perfect miscuī miscuistī miscuit miscuimus miscuistis miscuērunt,
pluperfect miscueram miscuerās miscuerat miscuerāmus miscuerātis miscuerant
future perfect miscuerō miscueris miscuerit miscuerimus miscueritis miscuerint
passive present misceor miscēris,
miscētur miscēmur miscēminī miscentur
imperfect miscēbar miscēbāris,
miscēbātur miscēbāmur miscēbāminī miscēbantur
future miscēbor miscēberis,
miscēbitur miscēbimur miscēbiminī miscēbuntur
perfect mixtus or mistus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect mixtus or mistus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect mixtus or mistus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present misceam misceās misceat misceāmus misceātis misceant
imperfect miscērem miscērēs miscēret miscērēmus miscērētis miscērent
perfect miscuerim miscuerīs miscuerit miscuerīmus miscuerītis miscuerint
pluperfect miscuissem miscuissēs miscuisset miscuissēmus miscuissētis miscuissent
passive present miscear misceāris,
misceātur misceāmur misceāminī misceantur
imperfect miscērer miscērēris,
miscērētur miscērēmur miscērēminī miscērentur
perfect mixtus or mistus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect mixtus or mistus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present miscē miscēte
future miscētō miscētō miscētōte miscentō
passive present miscēre miscēminī
future miscētor miscētor miscentor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives miscēre miscuisse mixtūrum esse,
mistūrum esse
mixtum esse,
mistum esse
mixtum īrī,
mistum īrī
participles miscēns mixtūrus,
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
miscendī miscendō miscendum miscendō mixtum,

1The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested.

Derived terms





  • misceo”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • misceo”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • misceo in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to cause universal disorder: omnia turbare ac miscere
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “misceō”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 382-383