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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. bare, naked

Derived terms[edit]

  • *nogʷ-ó-s[2][3]
    • Balto-Slavic: *nōˀgás (see there for further descendants)
    • Sanskrit: नाग (nāgá-, elephant; *the hairless one)[4]
    • *nogʷ-éh₂-ye-ti
      • Germanic: *nakwōną (see there for further descendants)
  • *nogʷ-e/odʰo-[5][6][4]
  • *nógʷts, *négʷts = *nókʷts (possibly)
  • *ne/ogʷ-nós[1][4]
    • Indo-Iranian: *nagnás[7] (see there for further descendants)
  • *ne/ogʷ-mós
    • Anatolian:
      • Hittite: [script needed] (nekumant-)
    • Hellenic:
  • *nogʷ-tó-s[1][8]
    • Celtic: *noxtos (naked) (see there for further descendants)
  • Unsorted formations:


Perhaps because of its expressive meaning the word was subject to a good deal of morphological and occasionally phonological reshaping.[4]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Wodtko, Dagmar S.; Irslinger, Britta; Schneider, Carolin (2008) Nomina im indogermanischen Lexikon [Nouns in the Indo-European Lexicon] (in German), Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, pages 513–515
  2. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 769
  3. ^ Derksen, Rick (2015) Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 13), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 978 90 04 27898 1, page 339
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q., editors (1997) Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 45
  5. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Kroonen
  6. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 418
  7. ^ Mayrhofer, Manfred (1996) Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen [Etymological Dictionary of Old Indo-Aryan] (in German), volume II, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, page 6
  8. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, ISBN 978-90-04-17336-1, page 294
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Martirosyan, Hrach (2010) Etymological Dictionary of the Armenian Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 8), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 463–465