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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Klimp suggests alternatively *sók(H)r̥ deriving from the root *sekH- (to separate, cut off, distinguish) +‎ *-r̥ (r/n-stem suffix).[1][2]


*sóḱr̥ n (oblique stem *sḱén-)[1][3][4]

  1. dung, excrement


Athematic, proterokinetic
singular collective
nominative *sóḱr̥ *sḱṓr
genitive *sḱéns *sḱnés
singular dual plural collective
nominative *sóḱr̥ *sḱṓr
vocative *sóḱr̥ *sḱṓr
accusative *sóḱr̥ *sḱṓr
genitive *sḱéns *sḱnés
ablative *sḱéns *sḱnés
dative *sḱéney *sḱnéy
locative *sḱén, *sḱéni *sḱén, *sḱéni
instrumental *sḱénh₁ *sḱnéh₁



  1. 1.0 1.1 Klimp, Jenne (2013). “Remnants of *r/n-Stem Heteroclite Inflection in Germanic”. Unpublished manuscript, University of Groningen. p. 47
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, pages 807-808
  3. 3.0 3.1 Kroonen, Guus (2013) , “*skarną”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 440
  4. 4.0 4.1 Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) , “σκῶρ”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), volume II, with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1365
  5. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) , “-cerda”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 109