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This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Long noted as a difficult word to reconstruct. The form *kowse has been suggested by Collinder (1960), and is supported e.g. by Aikio (2013), Zhivlov (2014). Has been also reconstructed as *kuuse, on the basis of Finnic and partly Mordvinic, or *koose, on the basis of Samic and Permic. Janhunen (1981) and Sammallahti (1988) suggest *kaxse (*kåxsɨ in their transcription), mainly based on Samoyedic. UEW reconstructs *kuse, even though this does not regularly match any of the descendants.



  1. spruce


  • Samoyedic: *kåət
    • Nganasan: (19th century) [script needed] (kuo), коˮ
    • Enets:
      • Forest Enets: [Term?] (kari)
      • Tundra Enets: [Term?] (kadi)
    • Yurats: [script needed] (cha)
    • Nenets:
    • Selkup: [script needed] (qut)
    • Kamassian: [script needed] (ko'd)
    • Mator: [script needed] (kat)
    • Turkic: *kạdɨ
  • Ugric:
  • Permic:
  • Mari: кож (kož)
  • Mordvinic: *kuz
  • Samic: *kuosë (see there for further descendants)
  • Finnic: *kuusi (see there for further descendants)


  • Aikio, Ante. 2013. "Uralilaisen kantakielen vokaalistosta". Paper presented at the seminar Etymologia ja kielihistoria: Erkki Itkosen ja Aulis J. Joen 100-vuotisjuhlaseminaari.
  • Collinder, Björn. 1960. Comparative Grammar of the Uralic Languages. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
  • Janhunen, Juha. 1981. "Uralilaisen kantakielen sanastosta" ('On the Vocabulary of the Uralic Proto-Language'). Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja 77, pp. 219–274.
  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic languages, with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic". In Sinor, Denis (ed.), The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, pp. 478–554. Leiden: Brill. →ISBN.
  • Zhivlov, Mikhail. 2014. "Studies in Uralic vocalism III". In Journal of Language Relationship 12, pp. 113–148.

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