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This Proto-Uralic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



In some sources also transcribed *weri. UEW reconstructs (in particular due to the Permic reflexes) *wire. The Mansi forms with ɣ remain unexplained.


Found only within the traditional Finno-Ugric languages; contrast Proto-Samoyedic *këm. Neither word can be explicitly shown to be an innovation, however.



  1. blood


  • Ugric:
    • Hungarian: vér
    • Mansi:
      • Northern: вигр (vigr)
      • Southern: [script needed] (wür)
    • Khanty:
  • Permic:
  • Mari: *wü̆r
  • Mordvinic:
  • Samic: *vërë (see there for further descendants)
  • Finnic: *veri (see there for further descendants)


  • Rédei, Károly (1986–88) Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Uralic Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó
  • Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic languages, with special reference to Samoyed, Ugric and Permic". In Sinor, Denis (ed.), The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences, pp. 478–554. Leiden: Brill. →ISBN.

External links[edit]

  • Entry #1152 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.