gjysmë

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Albanian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Has been linked to Proto-Indo-European *yemH- (twin),[1][2] although this is problematic both phonologically and semantically.

May reflect Proto-Indo-European *sḗmi-ty-om, compare Ancient Greek ἥμισσον n (hḗmisson, half), from *sēmi- (half). Original *s regularly yields gj before accented vowels. The original , after becoming *o must have regularly fronted to *e due to the following *i, and afterwards raised to *i because of the preceding palatal occlusive and following nasal, as also happened in qind, gjind. The evolution of an original stressed gji before labials to an oscillating gjy ~ gji ~ gju can also be observed in magjyp. The metathesis of ms may have been reinforced by contamination with -më, compare also kullusmë.

An early form of the term influencing Romanian jumătate, Aromanian giumitatigiumitate, although possible, seems unnecessary. A direct borrowing from Paleo-Balkan into Balkan Romance[2] is even less likely, as the terms simply metathesised outcomes of Latin medietās, the Pan-Romance word for half.

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

gjysmë f (plural gjysma, definite gjysma, definite plural gjysmat)

  1. a half, 12
  2. middle
    Synonym: mes
    gjysmëin the middle
  3. half sole
  4. (colloquial) low shoe (i.e. not covering the ankle), low-tops
  5. (colloquial) square headscarf for women
    Synonym: shami
  6. (archaic) Synonym of gjysmare

Derived terms[edit]

Adverb[edit]

gjysmë

  1. halfway, partially
    Synonym: përgjysmë
    Antonym: plotësisht
  2. half ... half. when repeated
    gjysma mi gjysma zoghalf mouse half bird

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eric P. Hamp (1992), “Albanian”, in Jadranka Gvozdanović, editor, Indo-European Numerals, Mouton de Gruyter, →DOI, →ISBN, page 920
  2. 2.0 2.1 Orel, Vladimir E. (1998), “gjysmë”, in Albanian Etymological Dictionary, Leiden; Boston; Köln: Brill, →ISBN, page 139f.

Further reading[edit]

  • “gjýsm/ë,~a”, in FGJSSH: Fjalor i gjuhës së sotme shqipe [Dictionary of the modern Albanian language]‎[1] (in Albanian), 1980, page 633f.
  • Mann, S. E. (1948), “gjysmë”, in An Historical Albanian–English Dictionary, London: Longmans, Green & Co., page 151b