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na- (atelic, circuital) + -ʼa- (unspecified person object prefix) + -Ø- (3rd person subject prefix) + -ł- (classifier, thematic)-kǫ́ǫ́ʼ (continuative imperfective stem of root -KǪ́Ǫ́’, “to swim”).



  1. he/she goes swimming, is swimming about
  2. (in the perfective) he/she swam to a location and swam back


Paradigm: Continuative (Ø/si).

IMPERFECTIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person naʼashkǫ́ǫ́ʼ naʼiilkǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼiilkǫ́ǫ́ʼ
2nd person naʼíłkǫ́ǫ́ʼ naʼołkǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼołkǫ́ǫ́ʼ
3rd person naʼałkǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼałkǫ́ǫ́ʼ
4th person nʼjiłkǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼjiłkǫ́ǫ́ʼ
PERFECTIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person niʼséłkǫ́ǫ́ʼ niʼsiilkǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼsiilkǫ́ǫ́ʼ
2nd person niʼsíníłkǫ́ǫ́ʼ niʼsoołkǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼsoołkǫ́ǫ́ʼ
3rd person naʼaskǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼaskǫ́ǫ́ʼ
4th person nʼjiskǫ́ǫ́ʼ ndaʼjiskǫ́ǫ́ʼ
FUTURE singular duoplural plural
1st person nʼdeeshkǫǫł nʼdiilkǫǫł ndaʼdiilkǫǫł
2nd person nʼdííłkǫǫł nʼdoołkǫǫł ndaʼdoołkǫǫł
3rd person nʼdoołkǫǫł ndaʼdoołkǫǫł
4th person nizhʼdoołkǫǫł ndazhʼdoołkǫǫł

Verbal stems[edit]

  • IMPERFECTIVE: -kǫ́ǫ́ʼ
  • PERFECTIVE: -kǫ́ǫ́ʼ
  • FUTURE: -kǫǫł
  • ITERATIVE: -kǫ́ǫ́h
  • OPTATIVE: -kǫ́ǫ́ʼ

Alternative forms[edit]