Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Ancient Greek 
Uncertain. Could be from a *ψάφμος (psaphmos) (compare γράφω (graphō), γράμμα (gramma)), and thus perhaps related to ψαφαρός (psapharos, “powdery, sandy”), ψῆφος (psēphos, “pebble”), as well as Latin sabulum.
- (5th BC Attic): IPA: /pʰsám̚mos/
- (1st BC Egyptian): IPA: /pʰsám̚mos/
- (4th AD Koine): IPA: /ɸsám̚mos/
- (10th AD Byzantine): IPA: /psám̚mos/
- (15th AD Constantinopolitan): IPA: /psámos/
Alpa is long in Doric.