զ-

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Old Armenian[edit]

Alternative forms[edit]

  • ս- (s-) (s-) (before voiceless consonants and only for the first sense)

Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰō- (behind; after; for). Cognates include Russian за (za), Lithuanian ažù (behind, after, for, beyond) and Latvian àiz (behind, beyond).

Preposition[edit]

զ- (z-)

  1. Intensifying particle, appended to the word to amplify its meaning. Used extensively in Old Armenian, dead in modern Armenian.
    ականեմakanem — I look
    զականեմzakanem — I look intently
  2. marking the definite accusative case
    սիրել զԱստուածsirel zAstuac — to love God
    տեսանել զարեգակնtesanel zaregakn — to see the sun
    ուտել զհացutel zhacʿ — to eat bread
    փրկեա՛ զմեզ ի չարէնpʿrkea zmez i čʿaren — save us from evil!
  3. (with dative) to (only with հարկանեմ (harkanem) and զարկեմ (zarkem))
    զահի հարկանելzahi harkanel — to be afraid
    զամօթի հարկանելzamōtʿi harkanel — to be shy
    ծափ զծափի հարկանելcapʿ zcapʿi harkanel — to clap
  4. (with ablative) about, of (this usage was called “narrative case” by older grammarians)
    խօսել զնմանէxōsel znmanē — to speak of him
    որ չարախօսեսցէ զհօրէ կամ զմօրէ, մահու վախճանեսցիor čʿaraxōsescʿē zhōrē kam zmōrē, mahu vaxčanescʿi — he who speaks ill of his father or mother shall die
    զկիտացն ասեմ եւ զդելփինացzkitacʿn asem ew zdelpʿinacʿ — I am talking about whales and dolphins
    զի՞նչ դոքա զքէն վկայենzi?nčʿ dokʿa zkʿēn vkayen — what do these tell about you?
    ուսուցանէ զբարւոյ և զարդարոյ և զչարէusucʿanē zbarwoy ew zardaroy ew zčʿarē — teaches about the good and the just and the bad
    ինձ ոչ է փոյթ զայնմանէinj očʿ ē pʿoytʿ zaynmanē — I don't care about that thing
    տրտնջել զեղբարացնtrtnǰel zełbaracʿn — to complain about the brothers
  5. (with ablative) from
    առեալ զձեռանէ նորաaṙeal zjeṙanē nora — holding from his hand
    կախեալ զբարձր զաշտարակէնkaxeal zbarjr zaštarakēn — hanging from a high tower
  6. (with ablative) after, in order to obtain
    երթալ զոսկւոյertʿal zoskwoy — to go and fetch gold, or in order to bring gold
    առաքել զջրոյaṙakʿel zǰroy — to send in order to bring water
    ...տաճիկ ուղտուք արձակէ ի Հայս արս զհողոյ և զջրոյ...tačik ułtukʿ arjakē i Hays ars zhołoy ew zǰroy — he sends men with swift camels into Armenia to get the earth and the water
  7. (with instrumental) round, around, about (this usage was called “circumlative case” by older grammarians)
    շուրջ զքաղաքաւն էինšurǰ zkʿałakʿawn ēin — they were around the town
    արկանել զնովաւarkanel znovaw — to put on him
    զայնու ժամանակաւzaynu žamanakaw — around that time
    զհասարակ գիշերաւ, զմէջ գիշերաւzhasarak gišeraw, zmēǰ gišeraw — around midnight
    զինն ժամուzinn žamu — around 9 o'clock
    անկաւ զպարանոցաւ նորաankaw zparanocʿaw nora — fell around his neck
  8. (with instrumental) marks the indirect object with some verbs
    եւ ոչ անցանեն զչափովew očʿ ancʿanen zčʿapʿov — and they don't cross the boundaries
    զտաճարաւն այպն առնէինztačarawn aypn aṙnēin — they were mocking the temple
    ածել զբոցովacel zbocʿov — to pass above the flame, to singe
    անցուցանել զամենեքումբքancʿucʿanel zamenekʿumbkʿ — to surpass, to surmount, to excel more than all
  9. (with instrumental) found in numerous idioms
    զմտաւ ածելzmtaw acel — to think
    զսրով երթալzsrov ertʿal — to die by sword
    զսիրով գալzsirov gal — to fall in love
    զանձամբ գալzanjamb gal — to take care about oneself
    զձեռօք ածելzjeṙōkʿ acel — to obtain

Derived terms[edit]

References[edit]

  • զա in Mathias Bedrossian (1879), New Dictionary Armenian–English, Venice: S. Lazarus Armenian Academy
  • Ašot Abrahamyan (1976), Grabari jeṙnark [A Handbook of Old Armenian] (fourth edition), Yerevan: Luys
  • զ- in Hračʿeay Ačaṙean (1971–79), Hayerēn armatakan baṙaran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words], in 4 vols (second edition), Yerevan: Yerevan State University
  • զ- in Geworg J̌ahukyan (ed. by Vahan Sargsyan) (2010), Hayeren stugabanakan baṙaran [Armenian Etymological Dictionary], Yerevan: Asoghik, ISBN 978-9939-50-121-5