Appendix:Korean parts of speech

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Speech levels[edit]

See also: Appendix:Korean verbs
화계 (hagye, “speech levels”, 話階)
공대화계 (gongdaehagye, “polite speech levels”, 恭待話階)
Korean term Wiktionary translation[1] Translations used elsewhere Notes
하십시오체 (hasipsioche) (합쇼체) formal polite style formal style[2], deferential style [3] 격식 (gyeoksik, “formal”) and 공대 (gongdae, “polite”, 恭待). E.g. 합니다, 하십니다.
해요체 (haeyoche) informal polite style polite style[2] 비격식 (bigyeoksik, “informal”) and 공대 (gongdae, “polite”, 恭待). E.g. 해요, 하세요.
하소서체 (hasoseoche) royalty style, extremely formal style E.g.: 하나이다, 하시나이다. Extremely formal and polite.
Others
Korean term Wiktionary translation[1] Translations used elsewhere Notes
해체 (haeche) informal plain style informal style 반말 (banmal, “half words”), i.e. without a proper final ending. E.g. 해, 하여, 하셔. Informal and of neutral to low politeness.
해라체 (haerache) formal plain style plain style[2] E.g. 한다, 하신다. Formal and of neutral to low politeness.
하게체 (hageche) familiar style[2] E.g. 하네, 하시네. Of neutral politeness.
하오체 (haoche) blunt style, middle style, formal lateral style, authoritative style semiformal style [2] E.g. 하오, 하쇼, 하시오. Formal and of neutral politeness.

Parts of speech[edit]

See also: Category:ko:Parts of speech
Korean term Wiktionary translation[1] Translations used elsewhere Notes
동사 (dongsa) verb action verb E.g.: 하다 (hada), 가다 (gada)
형용사 (hyeongyeongsa) adjective descriptive verb, stative verb, conjugated adjective E.g.: 곱다 (gopda), 덥다 (deopda)
관형사 (gwanhyeongsa) determiner determinative, adnominal, pre-noun, attributive, unconjugated adjective, adnoun[2] E.g.: (gak, “each”), 느린 (neurin)
명사 (myeongsa) noun substantive E.g.: 가족 (gajok), (mat)
대명사 (daemyeongsa) pronoun E.g.: (na), (geu)
부사 (busa) adverb E.g.: (tto), 가득 (gadeuk)
조사 (josa) particle postposition E.g.: (neun), (reul)
감탄사 (gamtansa) interjection exclamation E.g.: 아니 (ani)
수사 (susa) number numeral

Verb/adjective forms[edit]

Many of these appear to lack standard names in Korean.

Korean term Wiktionary translation[1] Translations used elsewhere Notes
연결형 (yeongyeorhyeong) stem[4] polite stem, infinitive[5][2], connective E.g. 하여 (hayeo), (hae)
기본형 (gibonhyeong) infinitive[6] dictionary form, fundamental form, standard form to be distinguished from the plain or formal plain style above; e.g. 하다 (hada)
하니 (hani) inferential
피동사 (pidongsa) passive
사동사 (sadongsa) causative
현재 (hyeonjae, 現在) present E.g. 한다, 먹습니다, 가요
과거 (gwageo, 過去) past preterite E.g. 했어, 먹었다, 갔습니다
과거 회상 형태 past recollective form(s) retrospective forms includes verbs of various moods, typically with -ㄷ-, -디-, -더니, or -던-
미래 (mirae) future assertive future, intentional, definite future the tense marked by - (get)-

Phonology[edit]

Korean term Wiktionary translation[1] Translations used elsewhere Notes
받침 (batchim) final[7] syllable-final consonant For example, the ㅂ in 쉽다.
거센 소리 (geosen sori) aspiration for example, ㅌ ㅋ ㅍ
된소리 (doensori) fortis tensing for example, ㄲ ㄸ ㅃ

Etymology[edit]

Korean term Wiktionary translation[1] Translations used elsewhere Notes
의성어 (uiseongeo) onomatopoeia see Category:ko:Onomatopoeia
의태어 (uitaeeo) ??? mimesis, mimetic word, imitative word, ideophone
한자어 (hanja-eo) Sino-Korean See Category:Sino-Korean words
고유어 (goyueo) Native Korean See Category:Native Korean words

Other[edit]

Korean term Wiktionary translation[1] Translations used elsewhere Notes
체언 (cheeon) substantive nominal Includes all 명사 (myeongsa, “noun”), 대명사 (daemyeongsa, “pronoun”) and 수사 (susa, “number”)
용언 (yongeon) inflectional word predicate, words that can be conjugated E.g. 이다 (ida), 아니다 (anida), also includes all 동사 (dongsa, “verbs”) and 형용사 (hyeong-yeongsa, “adjectives”)
어간 (eogan)  ? stem
(sang) aspect e.g. 직설 (jikseol, “indicative”) (-ㄴ, -니-, -는-), "retrospective" (-ㄷ-, -디-, -던-), or 가정 (gajeong, “subjunctive”) (-ㅅ-, -시-)
(beop) mood
서술법 (seosulbeop) (평서?) declarative mood In speech levels that differentiate with mood, verbs in the declarative mood typically end with -다, -라, or -ㅔ
의문형 (uimunhyeong) interrogative sentence -까, -ㅕ, 가
청유형 (cheong-yuhyeong) proposative sentence petitionary sentence, suggestive sentence -다, -자, -ㅔ
명령형 (myeongnyeonghyeong) imperative sentence In speech levels that differentiate with mood, verbs in the imperative mood typically end with -ㅗ, -ㅓ라, or -게.
어미 (eomi) suffix tail, verb ending generally used in specific distinction from 조사 (josa, “particle”).
종결어미 (jong-gyeor-eomi) sentence suffix closing suffix
복수형 (boksuhyeong) plural form

Notes[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Translations in italics have been proposed but may not yet be accepted.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Used in Martin (1992)
  3. ^ http://www.indiana.edu/~korean/K102/G7_1.html
  4. ^ Currently used in the POS templates, but clearly problematic due to conflict with 어간.
  5. ^ King & Yeon (2000).
  6. ^ Currently used in the POS templates, but clearly problematic.
  7. ^ See for example Category:Korean syllables without final.

Works cited[edit]

  • 1999, Baek, Bong-ja (백봉자), 외국어로서의 한국어 문법 사전 [Oegugueo-roseo-ui hangugeo munbeop sajeon, Grammatical dictionary of Korean as a foreign language], Seoul: Yonsei University Press, ISBN 89-7141-494-4:
  • 2000, King, Ross; Yeon, Jae-Hoon, Elementary Korean, Boston: Tuttle Publishing, ISBN 0-8048-3614-0:
  • 1992, Martin, Samuel E., A Reference Grammar of Korean, Singapore: Tuttle, ISBN 0-8048-3771-6:
  • 2006, Suh, Cheong-soo (서정수), 국어문법 [Gugeo munbeop, A Korean Grammar], rev. ed., Seoul: Jimoon, ISBN 89-951352-7-1: