하다

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Korean[edit]

Etymology[edit]

First attested in the Seokbo sangjeol (釋譜詳節 / 석보상절), 1447, as 다 (Yale: hota). Originally meaning "big, great", it was derived from the same root as 크— (keu-, “big”).

Pronunciation[edit]

Verb[edit]

하다 (hada) (infinitive or 하여, sequential 하니)

  • I. 「…을 하다」
  1. to do
    • 하루 을 하다haru bunui ireul hada — to do a full day of work
  2. to make; to arrange; to cook
  3. to express feeling or attitude
    • 어두 얼굴을 하다eoduun eolgureul hada — to wear a gloomy face
  4. to take; to eat; to drink
    • 좀처럼 하지 않다sureul jomcheoreom haji anta — to rarely drink alcohol
  5. to wear
  6. to work in/as; to operate
    • 조그 가게를 하다jogeuman otgagereul hada — to run a small clothing store
  7. to play a role; to take a responsibility for
    • 학생 회장을 하다haksaeng hoejang-eul hada — to be the student body president
  8. to get a result
    • 에서 일등을 하다baneseo ildeung-eul hada — to be at top of one's class
  9. to buy; to arrange
    • 휴대폰하나 하다hyudaeponeul hana hada — to buy a cell phone
  10. to reach a certein price
    • 이나 한다jip han chaee sip eogina handa — That house is as much as a billion won.
  11. (in the form of '…값을 하다') to meet an expectation
    • 밥값야지.
      Bapgapseun haeyaji.
      I will be worthy of food. (I will work.)
  12. (in the form of 'A B 할 것 없이') to say seperately
  • II. 「…을 -게 하다」
  1. to handle; to dispose
  • III. 「…을 …으로 하다」
  1. to make become; to cause to become
    • 여자아내 하다yeojareul anaero hada — to make a woman become one's wife
  2. to head; to face
    • 머리북쪽으로 하고 자다meorireul bukjjogeuro hago jada — to sleep with the head northward.
  3. to decide
  • IV. 「…을 -고 하다」
  1. to call; to name
    • 을 '동의어'라고 한다.
      Dareun malgwa tteusi gateun mareul 'dong-uieo'rago handa.
      We call a word which means the same with another word a 'synonym'.
  • V. 「…으로 하다」
  1. (in the form of '해서' or '하여') to be caused by
    • 로 하여 그는 중징계았다.
      I illo hayeo geuneun jungjinggyereul badatda.
      Due to this incident, he got heavily disciplined.
  2. (in the form of '해서' or '하여') to go via
    • 부산으로 해서 일본 생각이다.
      Busaneuro haeseo ilbone gal saenggagida.
      I'm going to visit Japan via Busan.
  • VI.
  1. (in the form of '… 해서') to reach a certain time
  2. (in the form of '… 하면') to make something a topic
    • 맥주 역시 독일이다.
      Maekju hamyeon yeoksi dogirida.
      To say about beer, Germany is the best.
  • VII. 「-고 하다」
  1. to say, to talk
    • 잠깐 하다jamkkan swijago hada — to say "Let's take a rest a bit!"
  2. (in the form of '하는', often '-고 하는' being shorten to '- 하는' or '-는') to be that
    • 잠깐 소리에 나는 그녀를 돌아봤다.
      Jamkkan swijaneun sorie naneun geunyeoreul dorabwatda.
      Hearing a voice saying "Let's take a rest a bit!", I looked back to her.
  • VIII.
  1. (after enumerating verbs) to do, actually not doing either of them well
    • 다가 다가 하다anjatdaga seotdaga hada — to alternate between sitting down and standing up
  2. (after an indirect question) to think
    • 그가 무얼 는가더니 만화이었다.
      Geuga mueol boneun-ga haetdeoni manhwachaegieotda.
      I wondered what he was reading to find it was a comic.
  3. (in the form of '- - 하다') to say
  4. (in the form of '-다 하면') to do, emphasizing inevitability
    • 다 하 명중이다.
      Sswatda hamyeon myeongjung-ida.
      Every time he shoots, it hits the mark.
  5. (after a word descripting sound) to sound
  6. (after a quotation not followed by any marker) to say
    • 그는 "그만!" 하고 외쳤다.
      Geuneun "geuman!" hago oechyeotda.
      "Stop!", he yelled.
  7. (in front of a sentence, in the form of '하나', '하니', '하면', '하여', ' 한데', and '해서') 'but', 'so', 'then', 'thus', 'by the way', and 'therefore' respectively.

Auxiliary Verb[edit]

  1. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '-게 하다') to make sb/sth do
    • 아이에게 숙제를 하게 하다aiege sukjereul hage hada — to have a child do the homework
      • cf. 아이숙제를 한.
        Aiga sukjereul handa.
        A child does the homework.
    • 그릇깨끗하게 하다geureuseul kkaekkeuthage hada — to make a dish clean
  2. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '-었으면 하다') to wish that
    • 나는 여름 내렸으면.
      Naneun yeoreume biga deol naeryeosseumyeon handa.
      I wish that it rained less in summer.
  3. (after verb or adjective, in the form of '-어야 하다') to have to do
  4. (after verb, in the form of '-으() 하다' or '-고자 하다') to intend to
  5. (in the form of "verb stem + '-' + semantic marker + ' 하다') to do, with an emphasis
    • 그는 .
      Geuneun jagiman handa.
      He only sleeps.
  6. (after verb, in the form of '-고 하다') to do, as a cause
  7. (after verb, in the form of '-고는 하다' or '-곤 하다') used to do
    • 시골 에, 나는 도랑따라 곤 했다.
      Sigore sal jeoge, naneun dorang-eul ttara geotgon haetda.
      When I lived in countryside, I used to walk along a ditch.
  8. (after adjective, in the form of '-어하다') to feel that sb/sth is
    • 그는 손녀몹시 귀여워했다.
      Geuneun sonnyeoreul mopsi gwiyeowohaetda.
      He loved his granddaughter very much.

Auxiliary Adjective[edit]

  1. (in the form of "adjective stem + '-기' + semantic marker + ' 하다') to be, with an emphasis
  2. (after adjective, in the form of '-고 하다') to be, as a cause

Usage notes[edit]

하다 (hada) is a productive suffix for creating verbs and adjectives from Korean nouns. E.g.:

Conjugation[edit]

Synonyms[edit]

  • 행하다 (haenghada, “to do”)
  • 삼다 (samda, “to make; to cause to become”)
  • 마시다 (masida, “to take; to eat; to drink”)