vor-

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German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Cognate with English fore-.

Pronunciation[edit]

Prefix[edit]

vor-

  1. pre- (denotes primarily that something is before or in front of another thing or higher in a hierarchy)

Derived terms[edit]


Middle Low German[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Either from Old Saxon fura- or from Old Saxon fur-, from Proto-Germanic *fra-. Cognate with Dutch ver-, German ver-, and Middle English fore-/for-. Used in the same way as Dutch er- and German er-

Pronunciation[edit]

  • (earlier) IPA(key): /fɔˑr/

Prefix[edit]

vor-

  1. modyfying verb-prefix
    vorspreken (to promise) from spreken (to speak), vorgeven (to forgive)
  2. denotes an action with a negative result
    vordarven (to rot), vorlysen (to lose)
  3. denotes an action flawed with a mistake
    vorscriven (to make a mistake in writing) to scriven (to write)

Usage notes[edit]

  • In its heyday it was uncommon to mark the Umlaut in most Middle Low German areas. This led at first to the misconception that there was none and later forced publishers of Middle Low German literature to guess the place of the Umlaut by the Low German of their time or by historical reconstruction. This in return led to some writings which give vör- instead of vor-.
  • Both forms probably existed, vor- and vör-, depending on dialect and intonation.
  • The later Low German prefix vör-, partially responsible for the aforementioned development, is not of Middle Low German derivation but is based on German ver- and replaces the original vor-. There was also a general spread of the Umlaut with (for example) subjunctive forms of verbs with Umlaut replacing otherwise identical indicative forms without Umlaut in the Low German of the 19th century, when most Middle Low German texts were republished.