íílééh

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Navajo[edit]

Etymology[edit]

ʼá- (thus) + -y- (3rd person object prefix) + -Ø- (3rd person subject prefix) + -ł- (classifier)-nééh (imperfective stem of root -YAA, “to make”).

Classifier and stem-initial merge as follows:

  • ł + -nééh > -Ø-lééh
  • ł + -yaa > -Ø-laa

The stem initial reappears under d-effect (1st person duoplural and passives):

  • d + ł + -nééh > -l-nééh
  • d + ł + -yaa > -l-yaa.

Verb[edit]

íílééh

  1. he/she is making it
    Bááh ádeiilnééh. — We are making bread.
  2. (with łahgo) he/she is changing it, altering it
  3. (with ąą) he/she is opening it

Usage notes[edit]

  1. Both áshłaa and íishłaa are acceptable first-person singular perfective forms of this verb.
  2. the perfective is highly irregular, and appears to follow a yii-imperfective paradigm.
  3. Iterative and usitative use the suppletive stem -ʼįįh, from root -ʼĮĮD, of similar meaning.

Conjugation[edit]

Paradigm: Momentaneous (Ø/yi), with some irregularities.

IMPERFECTIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person áshłééh íilnééh ádeiilnééh
2nd person ánílééh óhłééh ádaahłééh
3rd person íílééh ádeilééh
4th person ájílééh ádajilééh
Unspecified Passive A Passive B
Spatial álnééh ábiʼdilnééh
PERFECTIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person áshłaa, íishłaa íilyaa ádeiilyaa
2nd person íinilaa óohłaa ádaoohłaa
3rd person áyiilaa ádayiilaa
4th person ájiilaa ádajiilaa
Unspecified Passive A Passive B
Spatial ályaa ábiʼdiilyaa
FUTURE singular duoplural plural
1st person ádeeshłííł ádiilnííł ádadiilnííł
2nd person ádíílííł ádoohłííł ádadoohłííł
3rd person íidoolííł ádeidoolííł
4th person ázhdoolííł ádazhdoolííł
Unspecified Passive A Passive B
Spatial ádoolnííł ábidiʼdoolnííł
ITERATIVE singular duoplural plural
1st person ánéishʼįįh ánéiilʼįįh áńdeiilʼįįh
2nd person ánéilʼįįh ánáoołʼįįh áńdaoołʼįįh
3rd person ánáyiilʼįįh áńdayiilʼįįh
4th person áńjiilʼįįh áńdajiilʼįįh