كافور

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Arabic[edit]

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Pronunciation[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

كَافُورCinnamomum camphora

From an Austronesian language such as Malay kapur, possibly via Middle Persian 𐭪𐭠𐭯𐭥𐭫(kʾp̄wl /kāpūr/).

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

كَافُور (kāfūrm

  1. camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora
    • a. 675, Ḥasan ibn Ṯābit, ألا دفنتم رسول الله في سفط:
      أَلَا دَفَنْتُم رَسُولَ اللّٰهِ فِي سَفَطٍ — مِنَ الْأَلُوَّةِ وَٱلكَافُورِ مَنْضُودِ
      ʾalā dafantum rasūla llāhi fī safaṭin — mina l-ʾaluwwati wal-kāfūri manḍūdi
      Verily you buried God’s prophet in a basket – layered of aloe and camphorwood!
  2. the chemical compound camphor
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 76:5:
      إِنَّ ٱلْأَبْرَارَ يَشْرَبُونَ مِن كَأْسٍ كَانَ مِزَاجُهَا كَافُورًا‎‎
      ʾinna l-ʾabrāra yašrabūna min kaʾsin kāna mizājuhā kāfūran
      Lo! the righteous shall drink of a cup whereof the mixture is of camphor
  3. Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Declension[edit]
Descendants[edit]

Etymology 2[edit]

The shape KāLūM and the variant form vocalized in three ways especially as ending with ā suggests an Aramaic origin; attested in a broader meaning in Classical Syriac ܟܘܦܪܐ(kuppārā, sindon; cover of a calyx) and in Qumranic and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic כופרא(kuppārā, palm spadix or spathe), and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic גופרא(guppārā, inflorescence of a palm), Classical Mandaic ࡂࡅࡐࡀࡓࡀ(inflorescence of a palm), Classical Syriac ܓܘܦܪܐ(guppārā, inflorescence also of a palm). But still these are deemed foreign by Nöldeke following Bar ʿAlī and are probably formed in yet another Semitic language, connecting to the Arabic root ك ف ر(k-f-r) and غ ف ر(ḡ-f-r) related to “covering”.

Alternative forms[edit]

Noun[edit]

كَافُور (kāfūrm (plural كَوافِير(kawāfīr))

  1. bract of the inflorescence (طَلْع(ṭalʿ), wherein the وَلِيع(walīʿ)) of the date palm
Declension[edit]

References[edit]

  • kˀpwr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • kwpr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • kwprˀ2”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986– (CAL misses the Syriac at Brockelmann, Carl (1928) Lexicon Syriacum (in Latin), 2nd edition, Halle: Max Niemeyer, published 1995, page 341a, giving only the “dregs” meaning above it)
  • gwpr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986– (and Brockelmann, Carl (1928) Lexicon Syriacum (in Latin), 2nd edition, Halle: Max Niemeyer, published 1995, page 129a already proposed Aramaic origin of the Arabic “bract” word. Another Syriac meaning he gives as spūma maris = pumice would be an ancient equation for coral which is an animal however comparable to a palm inflorescence and not “a plant name” as in CAL)
  • مروان بن جناح‎ [Marwān ibn Janāḥ] (a. 1050) , Gerrit Bos, Fabian Käs, editors, كتاب التلخيص [kitāb at-talḵīṣ] [On the Nomenclature of Medicinal Drugs] (in English), Leiden: Brill, published 2020, DOI:10.1163/9789004413344, →ISBN, 211 (fol. 19v,15–17), page 398
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 147
  • Freytag, Georg (1837) , “قافور”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 47b
  • Freytag, Georg (1835) , “كافور”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 3, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 479b
  • Löw, Immanuel (1924) Die Flora der Juden[1] (in German), volume 2, Wien und Leipzig: R. Löwit, page 335
  • Nöldeke, Theodor (1875) Mandäische Grammatik[2] (in German), Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, page 112 § 95 footnote 1, apparently the first to claim its Aramaic origin.
  • Vollers, Karl (1896) , “Beiträge zur Kenntniss der lebenden arabischen Sprache in Aegypten”, in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft[3] (in German), volume 50, page 616