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Either a loan from Dravidian – compare Proto-Dravidian *wariñci ‎(rice) – or, according to Witzel, borrowed from an unknown South Asian, possibly Austro-Asiatic, source, with the Dravidian word being an independent borrowing of another variant.[1]

Related words are found in Iranian, Ancient Greek and Semitic. See Middle Persian blnj for more.


व्रीहि ‎(vrīhím

  1. rice
  2. (in the plural) grains of rice
  3. a field of rice
  4. rice ripening in the rainy season
  5. any grain


Masculine i-stem declension of व्रीहि
Nom. sg. व्रीहिः ‎(vrīhiḥ)
Gen. sg. व्रीहेः ‎(vrīheḥ)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative व्रीहिः ‎(vrīhiḥ) व्रीही ‎(vrīhī) व्रीहयः ‎(vrīhayaḥ)
Vocative व्रीहे ‎(vrīhe) व्रीही ‎(vrīhī) व्रीहयः ‎(vrīhayaḥ)
Accusative व्रीहिम् ‎(vrīhim) व्रीही ‎(vrīhī) व्रीहीन् ‎(vrīhīn)
Instrumental व्रीहिणा ‎(vrīhiṇā) व्रीहिभ्याम् ‎(vrīhibhyām) व्रीहिभिः ‎(vrīhibhiḥ)
Dative व्रीहये ‎(vrīhaye) व्रीहिभ्याम् ‎(vrīhibhyām) व्रीहिभ्यः ‎(vrīhibhyaḥ)
Ablative व्रीहेः ‎(vrīheḥ) व्रीहिभ्याम् ‎(vrīhibhyām) व्रीहिभ्यः ‎(vrīhibhyaḥ)
Genitive व्रीहेः ‎(vrīheḥ) व्रीह्योः ‎(vrīhyoḥ) व्रीहीणाम् ‎(vrīhīṇām)
Locative व्रीहौ ‎(vrīhau) व्रीह्योः ‎(vrīhyoḥ) व्रीहिषु ‎(vrīhiṣu)


  • Sir Monier Monier-Williams (1898) A Sanskrit-English dictionary etymologically and philologically arranged with special reference to cognate Indo-European languages, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 1043
  1. ^ Witzel 1999, page 27