Ἀχιλλεύς

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Ancient Greek[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Of uncertain origin. In Mycenaean Greek Linear B texts, the name 𐀀𐀑𐀩𐀄 (a-ki-re-u)[1] (nominative), 𐀀𐀑𐀩𐀸 (a-ki-re-we),[2] (dative) is attested and generally taken to be the same name.[3]

Since ancient times and in the present day, some have speculated that the name is connected to ἄχος (ákhos, distress; grief) and λαός (laós, people), as the grief Achilles causes people is a central theme of the Iliad.[4][5][6]

Another, unsupported hypothesis is the PIE word *h₂eḱ-pṓds (painful foot, literally sharp foot) evolved into Illyrian *āk̂pediós, then *ākhpdeós, then *akhiddeús and then, via a Pre-Greek source, the -dd- shifted to -ll-. The meaning "painful foot" would refer to his vulnerability but it may have been erroneously translated as "swift footed" because of the similarity with the root *h₂eḱ-u- (sharp, quick) from whence stems the similar Latin acupedius.

Pronunciation[edit]

 

Proper noun[edit]

Ἀχιλλεύς (Akhilleúsm (genitive Ἀχιλλέως); third declension

  1. A male given name: Achilles

Inflection[edit]

Derived terms[edit]

Descendants[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, volume 76 (1972, ISBN 0674379225)
  2. ^ Linear B, a 1984 Survey: Proceedings of the Mycenaean Colloquium (1985, ISBN 2870772890)
  3. ^ Glotta: Zeitschrift für griechische und lateinische Sprache (1993), The Name of Achilles: a revised etymology, page 19: a-ki-re-u (nominative) and a-ki-re-we (dative) at Knosses (Vc 106) and Pylos (Fn 06) respectively
  4. ^ Leonard Palmer (1963) The Interpretation of Mycenaean Greek Texts, Clarendon Press, page 79
  5. ^ Gregory Nagy (accessed 19 March 2015), “The best of the Achaeans”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], The Center for Hellenic Studies, Harvard University
  6. ^ Glotta: Zeitschrift für griechische und lateinische Sprache (1993), The Name of Achilles: a revised etymology, pages 19 through 21, summarizes Nagy's, Palmer's, and also Kretschmer's theories in this regard.