๐’ˆจ

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Assyrian cuneiform U12228 MesZL 753.svg
𒈨 U+12228, 𒈨
CUNEIFORM SIGN ME
โ† 𒈧
[U+12227]
Cuneiform 𒈩 โ†’
[U+12229]

Translingual[edit]

Cuneiform sign[edit]

๐’ˆจ Sign Number
MZL 753
Deimel 532
HZL 357
Components
๐’น, ๐’€ธ

Derived signs[edit]

References[edit]

  • R. Borger, Mesopotamisches Zeichenlexikon (MZL), Mรผnster (2003)
  • A. Deimel, ล umerisches Lexikon (Deimel), Rome (1947)
  • Chr. Rรผster, E. Neu, Hethitisches Zeichenlexikon (HZL), Wiesbaden (1989)

Akkadian[edit]

Sign values[edit]

Sign ๐’ˆจ
Sumerograms Iล IB, ME, MEล โ‚‚
Phonetic values me, miโ‚ƒ, ลกib/ลกip

Sumerian[edit]

Etymology 1[edit]

Verb[edit]

๐’ˆจ โ€ข (me)

  1. to be
    ๐’‚ท๐’‚Š ๐’€€๐’ˆพ๐’ˆจ๐’‚— โ€• gฬƒeโ‚‚โ‚†-e a-na-me-en /gฬƒe anamen/ โ€• What am I?
    ๐’ˆ ๐’ˆฌ๐’ฎ โ€• ma-mu-dam /mamudam/ โ€• It was a dream.
    ๐’‚ท๐’‚Š ๐’…‡ ๐’๐’‚Š ๐’‹€๐’ˆจ๐’‚—๐’‰ˆ๐’‚— โ€• gฬƒaโ‚‚-e uโ‚ƒ za-e ลกeลก-me-en-deโ‚ƒ-en /gฬƒe u ze ลกeลกmenden/ โ€• You and I are brothers.
Usage notes[edit]
  • ๐’ˆจ (me) is only used as a copula. To express the existential meaning of "to be somewhere", "to be there" the verb ๐’…… (gฬƒalโ‚‚ /gฬƒal/) is used instead.
  • The copula is inflected like an intransitive verb in the perfective. Independent and enclitic forms are in complementary distribution: the enclitic form is used when the copula would otherwise only consist of a vocalic prefix, verbal stem and person suffix; the independent form is used in all other cases.
  • The copula lacks the distinction of tense and aspect. Only the context can clarify whether the copula refers to past, present or future.
  • In Old Sumerian, the final consonant of the person suffixes was not written (so both ๐’ˆจ๐’‚— (me-en /men/) and ๐’ŽŒ (me-eลก /meลก/) were written ๐’ˆจ (me)); the third person enclitic form was written ๐’€ญ (amโ‚† /am/).
  • After clitics ending in a vowel, the third person enclitic form ๐’€€๐’€ญ (amโ‚ƒ /am/) was reduced to /m/ already in Old Sumerian. Like other syllable-final consonants, it was never written during that period and only occasionally from Old Akkadian on:
    ๐’‚๐’ˆฌ โ€• eโ‚‚-gฬƒuโ‚โ‚€ /egฬƒรปm/ โ€• it's my house
Inflection[edit]
Conjugation of ๐’ˆจ (me)
independent enclitic
1st singular ๐’ˆจ๐’‚—
men
2nd singular ๐’ˆจ๐’‚—
men
3rd singular ๐’ˆจ
me
๐’€€๐’€ญ
am
1st plural ๐’ˆจ๐’‚—๐’‰ˆ๐’‚—
menden
2nd plural ๐’ˆจ๐’‚—๐’ข๐’‚—
menzen
3rd plural ๐’ŽŒ
meลก

Etymology 2[edit]

Pronoun[edit]

๐’ˆจ โ€ข (me /mฤ“/)

  1. (enclitic) our (first-person plural possessive pronoun)
Usage notes[edit]
  • The /e/ of ๐’ˆจ (me) does not contract with the locative case marker:
    ๐’Œท๐’ˆจ๐’€€ โ€• iri-me-a /irimฤ“'a/ โ€• in our city
  • The /e/ of ๐’ˆจ (me) contracts with the vowel of the genitive case marker, resulting in /รช/:
    ๐’‚•๐’พ๐’ˆจ๐’…— โ€• egir dub-me-ka /egir dubmรชka/ โ€• on the reverse of our tablet
See also[edit]
Sumerian possessive pronouns
singular plural
1st singular ๐’ˆฌ
gฬƒu
๐’ˆจ
mฤ“
2nd singular ๐’ช
zu
๐’ช๐’‰ˆ๐’‰ˆ
zunฤ“nฤ“
3rd singular hum. ๐’€€๐’‰Œ
ane
๐’€€๐’‰ˆ๐’‰ˆ
anฤ“nฤ“
nhum. ๐’‰
be

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • โ€œ๐’ˆจ (me)โ€ in ePSD2
  • Jagersma, Bram (2010) A Descriptive Grammar of Sumerian[1] (doctoral thesis), page 677