Appendix:List of Proto-Ongan reconstructions

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The following list of Jarawa, Onge, and Proto-Ongan lexical items is from Blevins (2007: 194-198).

Notes[edit]

  • Duplicates in Blevins (2007) have been merged in the list below.
  • Words marked (A) are only attested in Abbi (2006).[1]
  • Some Jarawa words are from Sreenathan (2001)[2] and Kumar (2006, in progress).[3][4]
  • Onge words marked (P) are from Portman (1887).[5] Others are from Dasgupta & Sharma (1982)[6] and Cogoy (2004).[7]

List[edit]

gloss Proto-Ongan Jarawa Onge
1sg possessive/subject prefix *m- m- m-
2pl possessive pronoun; yours (pl.) *na na na
2sg possessive prefix; your (sg.) *ŋ- ŋ- ŋ-
2sg subject pronoun; you (sg.) *ŋi ŋi ŋi
3pl subject prefix *ekw- eh-, əh- ekw-
4th person prefix; indefinite personal *ən- ən-, on- ən-
adze *doy dow doyi
all mala-awde -lotalota
arrow *partu parto, partu barto
ashes hwiyə, omoha (A) toŋkute
bad, not good *biti, *piti? biti, piti -ibiti
bark (of tree) *-aŋwi nodəhe (A) -aŋwi ‘skin, bark’
base, root (of tree), calf (of leg) *-ici -ici- -ici-
bat *lətə yətə ləte
be full -ejebute
big *uma ‘big’ hutu, uma-me [ms:86] dalu, ue, ume
bird *nuk noha tuge
bite (vb.) -ibaga-
black *kiru hiru i-kiu
blood *-aceŋ, *ceŋ ceŋ, -aceŋ -aceŋe
blue, green *-ele -ele-, -elə, elu -i/ela
bone *daŋ, *-idaŋ -idəŋ -idaŋe, -ireŋe
bow *aw aw
boy; son *day daw, daa daye
breast *-akak -akag -agage, -agake
burn (vb.) tuhəb-le-yame
buttocks *-eɲjapo -eɲjapo -enabo
cane mat or platform *kam ham kame
cane; cane basket *dakweg daaig dakwage
carry on back *-apa -apa -aba
child *ale -ale ale, -aye
child (cf. *ale) *ecele əcələ, icele ecele
clay, earth *wed wed we
coconut tree, coconut *dag dag dage
cold *jom əemeyn (A) -ajomo, -jome; -ugite-
come (toward speaker) (vb.) *alema alema -alema-, -ayo-
cough *udu udu uru-ge
crab *kaka haka kaga
creek, stream *kwai hwaw kwai
die (vb.) *peca-me pecame became, bencame
dog *weme, *wem? wəm(e), wə-wəm wəmə, weme
drink (vb.) *-iɲco -iɲco -iɲjo, -ijo-
ear *-ikwag -ikwa, -ikwagu -ikwage
earth; land *bela ‘mud, dirt, earth’ pela, bela gea; tutano
eat, bite (vb.) *-ita, *-ata (dbl.) -ita- -ida, -ite, -ada
egg *gane yane gane
eye *-ecebo (< *eca-ipo) -ecepo -ejebo
face, forehead *-eca -ece- -eja-, -eje-
feather *-ode ‘hair, feather’ -ode -ode, -ore
fingernail *-(o,e)pe-taŋ (*-taŋ, -daŋ ‘bone; nail’) -opetaŋ -oboraŋe, -obeduŋe (P)
fire *tuke tuhə tuke
firewood; ignite fire, burn firewood *nam nam(e) name, yame
fish *napo napo coge
fish abdomen heyonu
flesh, cheek, fleshy part *-ipo -epo, -ipo -ebo, -ibo
flower *okw oha okw-
fly (vb.) *ugike- ugikə- -ugiʔkei
foot *uge (< *-uke) -ug(e) -uge
foreigner, stranger, not Ongan *inen inen inene
forest; stick *kayiw həwə kəyə, kəye, gai
give *kiya hiya kaʔ (imp.)
give (vb.) *bele -iya bele; -gabe-
go, come *bei bəi-te- bei
good, nice, beautiful *baro cew bado, baro
hair *-ode ‘hair, feather’ -ode, -od -ode, -ore, -orə
hand *-ome -om(e) -ome
hand, arm, branch, appendage *-ipil -ipil -ibile
head, face *-otab ‘head, face’ -otab, -otap -otabe
hear, listen (vb.) -koʔlakwe, -yeyeʔ
heart -ukukotabe
hit with arrow, kill aikwa otakwe
honey *lew ləw le
horns *-iru, *wiru (?) wiru
hot *kulu hulu kulu
husband *-agi -agi -agi/cebe
I (1sg subject pronoun) *mi mi mi
illness, pain, sickness *-bule ule, -obule ule-, -obule
knee *-olo -olo -ola, -olo
knife, dagger, iron *lee -le, leo leə, lee
know (vb.) *-iliɲe ‘see, know’ -iniyəla -iliɲe, -iliŋe
laugh (vb.) *-eni -enia -eɲi
leaf *bebe bebe bebe
lie down (vb.) *tule tule tule, nelaŋa (A)
liver *-oracu -oacu
log, tree, trunk, stem; canoe *taŋ, *daŋ? taŋ, daŋ daŋe, taŋe
long *talu ‘long, big’ , *dalu? talu, dalu jagai, ue, uye; dalu ‘big’
louse *kuhi ləhubə (A); kuhile toraŋi, toraŋ/gile
man taho (A) uɲagile
many, much mala; tapo kutu; waŋe; -ilake
moon tape, tabe cileme
mother (address term) *-aya -aya k/aye/ri
mouth *-alaŋ -olu, alu -alaŋe
mud, dirt, earth *bela, *pela? bela bela
name *-atiba atiba -atibe
navel *-ekwal -ehwal -ekwale
neck, throat *-aŋito -aŋito -aŋito
night kitale toŋki, boykwe
no, not; verbal negator *nadema nadem narema
non-past, non-completive *-ya -yə -a, -ə
nose *-iɲjan-ipo, *-iɲanpo -iɲapo; iɲanpo, -iɲanpo -iɲabo, iɲaibo
nurse, suckle *ɲoɲo ɲoɲo ɲoɲo
one *waya wəyə i-uaiya, i-woya
owl *koriko horko korige
path, trail *icala -icala -icele
person, native; member of group; Ongan *eŋ, *əŋ (< *en) əŋ, eŋ əŋe
pig; animal *kui hwəuwə, hoi kui
pipe made of crab claw *takwe tahe takwe
rain wəwə ujeŋe, ujəŋe
red *gidu horgidu gero, geru
red ochre *alam alam alame
resin, gum *pone pone bone, mone
root, buttress *ici-taŋ ‘tree root’ icitaŋ icindaŋe
sand pile, bilə belai; agaŋe, ageŋe
say, speak (vb.) -atiba bini ‘speak; drop; throw’; cenene- ‘talk’
see (vb.) *-yaba yo-yəba -iaba
see, look (vb.) *-iliɲe ‘see, know’ -yewəba, -iliye-ma -atiyebe, -iliɲe, -iliŋe
seed; fruit *otu otu -oto
sharp edge (e.g., of knife) *-icale icale -ijele
sharp instrument *cataŋ cataŋ ‘chisel’ ceraŋe ‘k.o. arrow; spade’
shell; thorn, spine, pointy protrusion *cana- cana- cena-
shine (of heavenly body) *cile- ciləhe, cilape ‘star’ cileme ‘moon’
shoulder *-ala -ala -al/laŋe
shoulder blade *-ataŋ -ataŋ -ata
side, lateral side (of body) *-ikola iholə ikola
sit (vb.) *antek -ətəhə -antəkə
skin *-atiy -atiye -ati
sky, clouds; flat *(p,b)aŋnan ‘flat (surface)’ baŋnaŋ, paŋnan- beŋnoŋe, bennaŋe
sleep (vb.) *-omuk > *-omok -omohə -omoka
small *baya baiya, boiya baya, bayai
smoke *bel ‘smoke’ pənel, bənel beleme
stand (vb.) *doka dokəte- doka-
star cilape, ciləhe kəyekəye
stative verbal suffix *-me -me -me
stomach -ore, -ohwe, -ihwede, -ihwedbo -ioŋe
stone *uli uli uli
stream, creek *kwai hwaw kwai
sun, day, daylight *eke ehe eke
swim (vb.) *kwara hwara kwa(n)e
tail *-ukicele awug ‘fish tail’; yawugu ‘bird tail’; yaw ‘tail (of dog)’ [rs:56] ukicele
tears *-epo-t-iŋ ‘water of eye’ -epotaŋ (A) -eboteŋe
that *lu lu lua
this *li li li
tongue *-adalaŋ -adal(e) -alaŋe
tooth *-akwed -ahod -akwe
tree, log *taŋ taŋ daŋe
two *naga naya ninaga, inaga
urinate *-ecele -ecele -ejele
walk (vb.) cayway(a) bujeye
water *iŋ iŋe
we *eti mi eti
weep, cry (vb.) *wana wana wana
what *one ‘what, which’ onaha one-nare
white *kala hala kala
who *one-akai ‘which one’ one ɲakai
wife *-aŋa -aŋab -aŋa/be ‘make s.o. one’s wife; take a wife (of a man)’
woman tayoha əŋa-cebe, əŋ-ale
wooden bucket *uku uhu uku
you (sg.) *ŋi ŋi ŋi

References[edit]

  • Blevins, Juliette. 2007. "A Long Lost Sister of Proto-Austronesian? Proto-Ongan, Mother of Jarawa and Onge of the Andaman Islands." Oceanic Linguistics, Volume 46, Number 1, June 2007, pp. 154-198.
Secondary sources cited by Blevins (2007)
  1. ^ Abbi, Anvita. 2004. Endangered languages of the Andaman Islands. Munich: Lincom Europa.
  2. ^ Sreenathan, M. 2001. The Jarawas: Language and culture. Anthropological Survey of India. Calcutta: Government of India.
  3. ^ Kumar, Pramod. 2006. Jarawa morphology. Handout from work-in-progress talk, November 7, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig.
  4. ^ Kumar, Pramod. In progress. A descriptive grammar of the Jarawa language. PhD dissertation, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig.
  5. ^ Portman, M. V. 1887. Manual of the Andamanese languages. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. [Reprinted in 1992 by Manas Publications, Delhi.]
  6. ^ Dasgupta, D., and S. R. Sharma. 1982. A Handbook of the Önge language. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India.
  7. ^ Cogoy, Estevao. 2004. Onge dictionary. http://www.freelang.net/dictionary/onge.html

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