Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/kʷékʷlos

Definition from Wiktionary, the free dictionary
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Asterisk.svg
This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

Reduplicated derivative of *kʷel- (to turn).[1]

Noun[edit]

*kʷékʷlos m (non-ablauting)

  1. wheel
  2. circle

Comment[edit]

This Proto-Indo-European word has been proposed as the source of Sumerian 𒄑𒇀 (ĜIŠGIGIR, chariot), Aramaic and Hebrew גַּלְגַּל(galgal, anything that rolls; wheel) (but compare גָּלַל(gālal, to roll)), and Proto-Kartvelian *grgar.[1] The similarly shaped Chinese 軲轆 (*guk luk)[2] is only attested in the last few centuries and may be the result of convergent onomatopoeic derivation. Instead, the undetermined (*kla, chariot” > “car) may be a borrowing from a descendant form of this root from the spread of the chariot. See Chariot (China).

Inflection[edit]

Thematic
singular collective
nominative *kʷékʷlos *kʷekʷléh₂
genitive *kʷékʷlosyo *kʷekʷlósyo
singular dual plural collective
nominative *kʷékʷlos *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloes *kʷekʷléh₂
vocative *kʷékʷle *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloes *kʷekʷléh₂
accusative *kʷékʷlom *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloms *kʷekʷléh₂
genitive *kʷékʷlosyo *? *kʷékʷlooHom *kʷekʷlósyo
ablative *kʷékʷlead *? *kʷékʷlomos *kʷekʷléad
dative *kʷékʷloey *? *kʷékʷlomos *kʷekʷlóey
locative *kʷékʷley, *kʷékʷloy *? *kʷékʷloysu *kʷekʷléy, *kʷekʷlóy
instrumental *kʷékʷloh₁ *? *kʷékʷlōys *kʷekʷlóh₁

Descendants[edit]

  • Anatolian:
    • (perhaps) Hittite: 𒃻𒆪𒄢𒆷 (NINDAKU.GUL.LA, lard biscuit, doughnut)
  • Balto-Slavic: *kaklas (< *kʷokʷlos)
    • Latgalian: koklys (neck)
    • Latvian: kakls (neck)
    • Lithuanian: kãklas (neck)
    • Finnic: *kakla (neck)
  • Germanic: *hwehwlą (< *kʷékʷlom) (see there for further descendants)
  • Hellenic:
    • Ancient Greek: κύκλος (kúklos, cycle, wheel) (< *kʷukʷlo-)
  • Indo-Iranian: *čakrám n (see there for further descendants)
  • Phrygian: κίκλην (kíklēn)
  • Tocharian: *kuk(ä)le (< *kʷukʷlo-)

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mallory, James Patrick (1989) In Search of the Indo-Europeans, Thames and Hudson, →ISBN, p. 163
  2. ^ John Farndon, The World's Greatest Idea, →ISBN, p. 95