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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Reduplicated derivative of *kʷel- (to turn).[1]


*kʷékʷlos m

  1. wheel
  2. circle

Alternative forms[edit]

  • *kʷekʷlóm
  • *kʷókʷlos
  • *kuklós (= *kʷₔkʷlós reanalyzed as containing *-lós?)

Reconstruction notes[edit]

This Proto-Indo-European word has been proposed as the source of Sumerian 𒄑𒇀 (ĜIŠGIGIR, chariot), Aramaic and Hebrewגַּלְגַּל(galgal, anything that rolls; wheel) (but compare ⁧גָּלַל(gālal, to roll)), and Proto-Kartvelian *grgar.[1] The similarly shaped Chinese 軲轆轱辘 (*guk luk)[2] is only attested in the last few centuries and may be the result of convergent onomatopoeic derivation. Instead, the undetermined (*kla, chariot” > “car) may be a borrowing from a descendant form of this root from the spread of the chariot. See Chariot (China).


singular collective
nominative *kʷékʷlos *kʷekʷléh₂
genitive *kʷékʷlosyo *kʷekʷlósyo
singular dual plural collective
nominative *kʷékʷlos *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloes *kʷekʷléh₂
vocative *kʷékʷle *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloes *kʷekʷléh₂
accusative *kʷékʷlom *kʷékʷloh₁ *kʷékʷloms *kʷekʷléh₂
genitive *kʷékʷlosyo *? *kʷékʷloHom *kʷekʷlósyo
ablative *kʷékʷlead *? *kʷékʷlomos *kʷekʷléad
dative *kʷékʷloey *? *kʷékʷlomos *kʷekʷlóey
locative *kʷékʷley, *kʷékʷloy *? *kʷékʷloysu *kʷekʷléy, *kʷekʷlóy
instrumental *kʷékʷloh₁ *? *kʷékʷlōys *kʷekʷlóh₁


  • Anatolian:
    • (perhaps) Hittite: 𒃻𒆪𒄢𒆷 (NINDAKU.GUL.LA, lard biscuit, doughnut)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *kaklas (< *kʷokʷlos)
    • Latgalian: koklys (neck)
    • Latvian: kakls (neck)
    • Lithuanian: kãklas (neck)
    • Proto-Finnic: *kakla (neck) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *hwehwlą (< *kʷekʷlóm) (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *kʷókʷlos (< *kʷokʷlos) or *kúklos? (< *kʷukʷlos)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *čakrám (< *kʷekʷlóm) (see there for further descendants)
  • Phrygian: κίκλην (kíklēn) (+ *-ēn)
  • Proto-Tocharian: *kuk(ä)le (< *kʷukʷlo-)[3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Mallory, James Patrick (1989) In Search of the Indo-Europeans, Thames and Hudson, →ISBN, p. 163
  2. ^ John Farndon, The World's Greatest Idea, →ISBN, p. 95
  3. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “kokale”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 214