Ashkenazim

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English[edit]

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Alternative forms[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From Hebrew אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים (ashk'nazím), plural of אַשְׁכְּנַזִּי (ashk'nazí), from אַשְׁכֲּנַז (ashk'naz, Ashkenaz), son of Gomer, grandson of Japheth, and great-grandson of Noah,[1][2] mythical progenitor of the Ascanians of Phrygia, and later, in mediaeval times, identified with the Germans.[3]

Pronunciation[edit]

Noun[edit]

Ashkenazim pl

  1. plural form of Ashkenazi
    • 1993: Hirsch Jakob Zimmels, Ashkenazim and Sephardim, main title (KTAV Publishing House; ISBN 0881254916, 9780881254914)
      Ashkenazim and Sephardim: Their Relations, Differences, and Problems as Reflected in the Rabbinical Responsa.
    • 1995: Eli Faber and Hanry L Feingold, A Time for Planting: The First Migration, 1654–1820, page 61 (JHU Press; ISBN 0801851203, 9780801851209)
      Following the return of Jews to England in the second half of the seventeenth century, the Ashkenazim at first worshipped with the Sephardim, but hardly any were admitted to membership in the Sephardic congregation. In 1679 the Sephardim prohibited Ashkenazim from being called to the Torah, receiving any honors, voting, holding office or even making contributions without express permission. By 1690 the Ashkenazim began to worship separately, and in 1694 the leaders of the Sephardic congregation decreed that “the Synagogue Saar Asamaim shall only serve for the Jews of our Portuguese and Spanish nation . . . and the Jews of other nations that may come shall be admitted to say prayers if it seems good to the gentlemen of Mahamad.” This regulation merely affirmed one adopted thirty years before, which required the approval of the governing body for non-Sephardim to worship among them. By 1697 London’s Ashkenazim and Sephardim were being interred in separate burial grounds, following a demand by the Sephardic leadership four years earlier that the Ashkenazim establish their own cemetery. In Amsterdam, the two groups built grand, but separate, synagogues during the early 1670s. The Sephardim permitted Ashkenazim to attend services in their synagogue but segregated them to the sides. In 1772, when a large throng filled the structure to observe a competition to select a new hazan, the Ashkenazim in attendance broke through wooden barriers meant to restrict them to the sides, trampling six attendants in the process, in order to gain entrance to the central part of the synagogue. The occurrence undoubtedly confirmed Sephardic views of Ashkenazic barbarism.
    • 2005: Mehran Kamrava, The Modern Middle East: A Political History since the First World War‎, page 219 (University of California Press; hardcover: ISBN 9780520241497; paperback: ISBN 9780520241503)
      The Ashkenazim, many of whom trace their origins back to the early days of Labor Zionism in the late 1800s, have long held most of the economic and political power in Israel.

Related terms[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Holy Bible (KJV, 1611), Genesis 10:1–5
      Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.
      2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.
      3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
      4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.
      5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.
  2. ^ The Holy Bible (KJV, 1611), 1 Chronicles 1:1–7
      Adam, Sheth, Enosh,
      2 Kenan, Mahalaleel, Jered,
      3 Henoch, Methuselah, Lamech,
      4 Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
      5 ¶ The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.
      6 And the sons of Gomer; Ashchenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.
      7 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Ashkenazim, n. pl.” listed in the Oxford English Dictionary [2nd Ed.; 1989]

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