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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative forms[edit]


Uncertain; possibly from Proto-Indo-European *gʷew(H)- (to gain), whence Latvian gaut (to catch, gain), gūvejs (winner), Lithuanian gáuti (to gain, obtain), or perhaps from *bʰewd- (to beat).[1]


*boudi n[1][2][3]

  1. profit, gain
  2. victory


Neuter i-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *bowdi *bowdī *bowdyā
vocative *bowdi *bowdī *bowdyā
accusative *bowdi *bowdī *bowdyā
genitive *bowdois *bowdois *bowdyom
dative *bowdē *bowdibom *bowdibos
instrumental *bowdī *bowdibim *bowdibis

Derived terms[edit]


  • Brythonic: bʉd m
  • Old Irish: búaid f, boid
  • Gaulish: *boudi[4]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Matasović, Ranko (2009), “*bowdi-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 72
  2. ^ Koch, John (2004), “*boudi-”, in English–Proto-Celtic Word-list with attested comparanda, University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  3. ^ Wodtko, Dagmar S. (2017–2018), “Chapter XI: Celtic”, in Klein, Jared S.; Joseph, Brian D.; Fritz, Matthias, editor, Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics: An International Handbook (Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft [Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science]; 41.2), Berlin; Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, →ISBN, § The lexicon of Celtic, page 1257
  4. 4.0 4.1 Delamarre, Xavier (2003) Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise: une approche linguistique du vieux-celtique continental [Dictionary of the Gaulish language: A linguistic approach to Old Continental Celtic] (Collection des Hespérides; 9), 3rd edition, Éditions Errance, →ISBN, page boudi- of 83-84