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This Proto-Celtic entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *súH-s (pig),[1] possibly through:

For meaning parallel, compare cognates in Ancient Greek ὗς (hûs, pig) and ὕνις (húnis, plowshare).[4]


*sukkos m[5][1][6][7]

  1. pig (snout)
  2. plowshare


Masculine o-stem
singular dual plural
nominative *sukkos *sukkou *sukkoi
vocative *sukke *sukkou *sukkūs
accusative *sukkom *sukkou *sukkoms
genitive *sukkī *sukkous *sukkom
dative *sukkūi *sukkobom *sukkobos
locative *sukkei *? *?
instrumental *sukkū *sukkobim *sukkūis

Alternative reconstructions[edit]


  • Proto-Brythonic: *hux (pig)
    • Old Breton: hoch
    • Old Cornish: hoch
    • Welsh: hwch
    • ? Old English: hogg (hog)[6] (see there for further descendants)
  • Middle Irish: socc (snout; plowshare)
  • Vulgar Latin: *soccus (plowshare)[9]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Pokorny, Julius (1959) “sū̆-s, suu̯-ós”, in Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume 3, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 1038
  2. ^ de Bernardo Stempel, Patrizia (1999) Nominale Wortbildung des älteren Irischen: Stammbildung und Derivation [Noun Formation in Old Irish: Stem-formation and derivation] (Buchreihe der Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie) (in German), volume 15, Tübingen: Niemeyer, →ISBN, page 35:aus *su+k+ko- zu idg. *sū̆s
  3. ^ Testen, David (1999) “Stem-final *-kk- in Celtic terms for ‘pig’”, in Ériu, volume 50, pages 161–164
  4. ^ Beekes, Robert S. P. (2010) “ὕνις, -εως, -ιος”, in Etymological Dictionary of Greek (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 10), with the assistance of Lucien van Beek, Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 1532
  5. ^ Thurneysen, Rudolf (1884) “soc”, in Keltoromanisches, die keltischen etymologieen im etymologischen worterbuch der romanischen sprachen von F. Diez (in German), Halle: Max Niemeyer, page 112:kelt. *sŭccos
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Mallory, J. P., Adams, D. Q., editors (1997), “*sū́s”, in Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, London, Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, page 425:Celtic < *sukko-
  7. ^ Zair, Nicholas (2012) The reflexes of the Proto-Indo-European laryngeals in Celtic, Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 158
  8. ^ Koch, John (2004) “pig *sukku-”, in English–Proto-Celtic Word-list with attested comparanda[1], University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies, page 253
  9. ^ Williams, Robert (1865) chapter 322, in Lexicon Cornu-Britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, in which the Words are elucidated by Copious Examples from the Cornish Works now remaining; With Translations in English, London: Trubner & Co., page soch