Reconstruction:Proto-Indo-European/ǵn̥néh₃ti

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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.

Proto-Indo-European[edit]

Etymology[edit]

From *ǵneh₃- +‎ *-né-.

Verb[edit]

*ǵn̥néh₃ti (imperfective)

  1. to know, recognize

Inflection[edit]

Imperfective, athematic
3rd singular *ǵn̥néh₃ti
3rd plural *ǵn̥nh₃énti
Active voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *ǵn̥néh₃mi *ǵn̥néh₃m̥ *ǵn̥néh₃oh₂ *ǵn̥nh₃yéh₁m̥
2nd singular *ǵn̥néh₃si *ǵn̥néh₃s *ǵn̥néh₃, *ǵn̥nh₃dʰí *ǵn̥néh₃esi *ǵn̥nh₃yéh₁s
3rd singular *ǵn̥néh₃ti *ǵn̥néh₃t *ǵn̥néh₃tu *ǵn̥néh₃eti *ǵn̥nh₃yéh₁t
1st dual *ǵn̥nh₃wós *ǵn̥nh₃wé *ǵn̥néh₃owos *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁wé
2nd dual *ǵn̥nh₃tés *ǵn̥nh₃tóm *ǵn̥nh₃tóm *ǵn̥néh₃etes *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁tóm
3rd dual *ǵn̥nh₃tés *ǵn̥nh₃tā́m *ǵn̥nh₃tā́m *ǵn̥néh₃etes *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁tā́m
1st plural *ǵn̥nh₃mós *ǵn̥nh₃mé *ǵn̥néh₃omos *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁mé
2nd plural *ǵn̥nh₃té *ǵn̥nh₃té *ǵn̥nh₃té *ǵn̥néh₃ete *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁té
3rd plural *ǵn̥nh₃énti *ǵn̥nh₃ént *ǵn̥nh₃éntu *ǵn̥néh₃onti *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁ént
Participle *ǵn̥nh₃ónts
Middle voice Present indicative Past indicative Imperative Subjunctive Optative
1st singular *ǵn̥nh₃h₂ér *ǵn̥nh₃h₂é *ǵn̥néh₃oh₂er *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁h₂é
2nd singular *ǵn̥nh₃th₂ér *ǵn̥nh₃th₂é *ǵn̥nh₃só *ǵn̥néh₃eth₂er *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁th₂é
3rd singular *ǵn̥nh₃tór, *ǵn̥nh₃ór *ǵn̥nh₃tó, *ǵn̥nh₃ó *? *ǵn̥néh₃etor *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁tó, *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁ó
1st dual *ǵn̥nh₃wósdʰh₂ *ǵn̥nh₃wédʰh₂ *ǵn̥néh₃owosdʰh₂ *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁wédʰh₂
2nd dual *? *? *? *? *?
3rd dual *? *? *? *? *?
1st plural *ǵn̥nh₃mósdʰh₂ *ǵn̥nh₃médʰh₂ *ǵn̥néh₃omosdʰh₂ *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁médʰh₂
2nd plural *ǵn̥nh₃dʰh₂wé *ǵn̥nh₃dʰh₂wé *ǵn̥nh₃dʰh₂wé *ǵn̥néh₃edʰh₂we *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁dʰh₂wé
3rd plural *ǵn̥nh₃rór, *ǵn̥nh₃n̥tór *ǵn̥nh₃ró, *ǵn̥nh₃n̥tó *? *ǵn̥néh₃oror, *ǵn̥néh₃ontor *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁ró, *ǵn̥nh₃ih₁n̥tó
Participle *ǵn̥nh₃m̥h₁nós

Descendants[edit]

  • Balto-Slavic: *źināˀtei (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *gninati (to recognize) (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *kunnaną (to know (how), be able to) (innovated root *ǵenn-) (see there for further descendants)
    • Germanic: *kannijaną (to know, to recognise) (causative of the above innovated root) (see there for further descendants)
  • Indo-Iranian: *ȷ́ānáHti (to know, recognize) (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian: [Term?]