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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Extended from *(s)tew- (to push, hit).



  1. to push, to stick

Derived terms[edit]

  • *(s)téwp-e-ti ~ *(s)téwp-o-nti (simple thematic present)
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *(s)táwpati
  • *(s)tup-yé-ti ~ *(s)tup-yó-nti (zero-grade ye-present)
  • *(s)tup-eh₁-(ye)- (stative)
  • *(s)tup-os
    • Proto-Hellenic:
  • *(s)tup-os ~ *(s)tup-es-
  • Unsorted formations:
    • Proto-Germanic: *steupa- (see there for further descendants)
    • Proto-Hellenic:
    • Proto-Indo-Iranian:
      • Middle Persian: stwb' (/stō/, distressed, defeated)[4]
        • Classical Persian: ستوه(sutōh, struck by strong negative emotion)


  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*(s)teu̯p-”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 602-603
  2. ^ Cheung, Johnny (2007), “*staup”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Iranian Verb (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 2), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 367
  3. ^ Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag
  4. 4.0 4.1 MacKenzie, D. N. (1971) A concise Pahlavi dictionary, London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, page 77