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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.




  1. to bend
  2. curve; swelling

Derived terms[edit]

  • *bʰewgʰ- (full-grade root present)
    • Germanic: *beuganą (see there for further descendants)
  • *bʰugʰ- (zero-grade root present)
    • Albanian butë
    • Armenian: (possibly) բուկ (buk) (seems to reflect *bʰewg-)
    • Indo-Iranian:
  • *bʰugʰ-eh₂-ye-
  • *bʰowgʰ-ro-
  • *bʰu-né-gʰ- ~ *bʰu-n-gʰ- (nasal-infix present)
    • Celtic: *bungeti (see there for further descendants)

With metathesis *gʰewbʰ-.

  • *gʰu-né-bʰ- ~ *gʰu-m-bʰ- (nasal-infix present)
  • *gʰubʰ-néw- ~ *gʰubʰ-nu- (nu-present)
    • Balto-Slavic:
  • *gʰowbʰ-eye- (causative/iterative)
    • Balto-Slavic:
      • Slavic: *gubìti (see there for further descendants)


  1. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill