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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]

  • *h₂éwh₂s ~ *h₂uh₂ós[1]


On the basis of the geminate "ḫ" in Hittite "ḫuḫḫa-", Kloekhorst concludes that it cannot reflect a diphthong, since it's contradicted by Eichner's lenition law. Therefore he argues that an athematic ablauting paradigm should be reconstructed instead.


*h₂éwh₂os m (non-ablauting)[2]

  1. maternal grandfather
  2. maternal uncle


nominative *h₂éwh₂os
genitive *h₂éwh₂osyo
singular dual plural
nominative *h₂éwh₂os *h₂éwh₂oh₁ *h₂éwh₂oes
vocative *h₂éwh₂e *h₂éwh₂oh₁ *h₂éwh₂oes
accusative *h₂éwh₂om *h₂éwh₂oh₁ *h₂éwh₂oms
genitive *h₂éwh₂osyo *? *h₂éwh₂ooHom
ablative *h₂éwh₂ead *? *h₂éwh₂omos
dative *h₂éwh₂oey *? *h₂éwh₂omos
locative *h₂éwh₂ey, *h₂éwh₂oy *? *h₂éwh₂oysu
instrumental *h₂éwh₂oh₁ *? *h₂éwh₂ōys


  • Anatolian:
    • Hittite: 𒄷𒄴𒄩𒀸 (ḫu-uḫ-ḫa-as)
    • Lycian: 𐊜𐊒𐊄𐊀 (χuga)
  • Armenian:
  • Balto-Slavic:
    • Lithuanian: avynas
    • Old Prussian: awis
    • Slavic: *ujь (see there for further descendants)
  • Celtic: *auyos
  • Celtic: *awontīr
  • Celtic: *altrawū (foster uncle)
    • Brythonic: [Term?]
    • Middle Irish: altra (foster father)
  • Germanic: *awô (grandfather) (see there for further descendants)
  • Germanic: *awǭ (grandmother)
  • Italic: *awos (grandfather), *awā (grandmother)
    • Latin: avus (see there for further descendants)
  • Tocharian:


  1. ^ Kloekhorst, Alwin (2008) Etymological Dictionary of the Hittite Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 5), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 411
  2. ^ Ringe, Don (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic, Oxford University Press
  3. ^ Matasović, Ranko (2009) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 9), Leiden: Brill, →ISBN, page 49-50
  4. ^ Adams, Douglas Q. (2013), “āwe”, in A Dictionary of Tocharian B: Revised and Greatly Enlarged (Leiden Studies in Indo-European; 10), Amsterdam, New York: Rodopi, →ISBN, page 61