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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions[edit]


Borrowed from or into Proto-Semitic *ṯawr- (bull, ox), or both originated from a common unknown source. (The unconditioned /a/ suggests a non-Indo-European etymon.)


*táwros m[1][2][3]

  1. wild bull, aurochs


nominative *táwros
genitive *táwrosyo
singular dual plural
nominative *táwros *táwroh₁ *táwroes
vocative *táwre *táwroh₁ *táwroes
accusative *táwrom *táwroh₁ *táwroms
genitive *táwrosyo *? *táwroHom
ablative *táwread *? *táwromos
dative *táwroey *? *táwromos
locative *táwrey, *táwroy *? *táwroysu
instrumental *táwroh₁ *? *táwrōys


  • Proto-Albanian: *taura (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Balto-Slavic: *taurás (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Germanic: *steuraz, *þeuraz (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Celtic: *tarwos (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Hellenic: *táuros (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian: *stáwras (see there for further descendants)
  • Proto-Italic: *tauros (see there for further descendants)
  • Lusitanian: taurom


  1. ^ Mallory, James Patrick (1989) In Search of the Indo-Europeans, Thames and Hudson, →ISBN, page 150
  2. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006) The Oxford introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European world, Oxford University Press, page 82
  3. ^ Anthony, David (2007) The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton University Press, →ISBN, page 147