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This Proto-Kartvelian entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Considerable dialectal variation appears in the daughter languages. The main difficulty in reconstructing the archetype lies in the initial part of the word (Klimov, 1998), which may appear as a voiced or a voiceless cluster, especially in Georgian and Svan. Fenwick (2017) suggests a regular dissimilation from earlier Proto-Kartvelian *sxmal-ṭl- (literally rotten pear, spoiled pear), a compound of *sxmal- (pear)—which, along with a variant *msxal- (pear), is ultimately from Late Proto-Indo-European *(s)h₂émlo- (apple, tree fruit)—suffixed with Proto-Kartvelian *ṭl-,[1] in which case the variants with voiced onset would be the result of sporadic voicing.

Middle Armenian զկեռ (zkeṙ) and Ancient Greek μέσπιλον (méspilon) may also be connected in some fashion.



  1. medlar



  1. ^ Fenwick, Rhona S. H. (2017) “An Indo-European origin of Kartvelian names for two maloid fruits”, in Iran and the Caucasus[1], volume 21, pages 310-323
  2. ^ Penrixi (Fähnrich), Hainc, Sarǯvelaʒe, Zurab (2000) Kartvelur enata eṭimologiuri leksiḳoni [Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages] (in Georgian), 2nd edition, Tbilisi: Tbilisi Sulkhan-Saba Orbeliani State University Press, page 336
  3. ^ Fähnrich, Heinz (2007) Kartwelisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch [Kartvelian Etymological Dictionary] (Handbuch der Orientalistik; VIII.18) (in German), Leiden, Boston: Brill, pages 377–378
  4. ^ Klimov, G. A. (1998) Etymological Dictionary of the Kartvelian Languages (Trends in linguistics. Documentation; 16), New York, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, page 171
  • Marr, N. (1915) “Яфетические названия деревьев и растений (Pluralia tantum). II [Japhetic names of trees and plants (Pluralia tantum). II]”, in Известия Российской Академии Наук. VI серия[2] (in Russian), volume 9, number 9, pages 827–828

Further reading[edit]

  • Čikobava, Arnold (1938) Č̣anur-megrul-kartuli šedarebiti leksiḳoni [Laz–Megrel–Georgian Comparative Dictionary] (Works; IV) (in Georgian), Tbilisi: Arnold Chikobava Institute of Linguistics, published 2008, pages 146–147
  • Gudava, Ṭogo (1960) “O-s u-ši gadasvlis zogierti šemtxveva zanur (megrul-č̣anur) enaši [Some cases of transition of o into u in Zan (Mingrelian-Chan) language]”, in Sakartvelos ssr mecnierebata aḳademiis moambe (in Georgian), volume 25, number 1, Tbilisi, page 119―122
  • Ivanišvili, Marina (2013) “Mcenareta saxelebi kartvelurši: zɣmarṭli [Plant names in Kartvelian: medlar]”, in Axlo aɣmosavleti da sakartvelo (in Georgian), volume VII, Tbilisi: Ilia State University Press, pages 23–25