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This Proto-Slavic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From Proto-Balto-Slavic . According to the usual doctrine[1], the initial form was *h₁ōd, ablative singular of the PIE demonstrative pronoun *éy, h₁e. However, that demonstrative has no such ablative singular attested in any of the daughter languages, so that hypothesis remains unprovable.

The same PIE proto-form could have also yielded Sanskrit आत् (ā́t, so, then, afterwards) and Avestan 𐬁𐬀𐬝(āat̰, afterwards, then).



  1. but
  2. and


  • East Slavic:
    • Belarusian: а (a)
    • Old Novgorodian: а (a)
    • Russian: а (a)
      • Kildin Sami: а (a)
    • Ukrainian: а (a)
  • South Slavic:
    • Old Church Slavonic:
      Old Cyrillic: а (a)
      Glagolitic: (a)
    • Bulgarian: а (a)
    • Macedonian: а (a)
    • Serbo-Croatian: a
    • Slovene: a
  • West Slavic:
    • Czech: a
    • Polish: a
    • Slovak: a
    • Sorbian:
      • Lower Sorbian: a
      • Upper Sorbian: a

Further reading[edit]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Derksen, Rick (2008), “*a”, in Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 4), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 25: “conj. ‘and, but’”
  2. ^ Olander, Thomas (2001), “a”, in Common Slavic accentological word list, Copenhagen: Editiones Olander: “but, and (PR 146)”