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This Proto-Turkic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



Perhaps related to Manchu ᡠᡶᡠᡥᡠ (ufuhu, lung).



  1. lung


  • Old Turkic: [script needed] (öpke), (Yenisei)
  • Karakhanid: [script needed] (öpke)
      • Karluk

Further reading[edit]

  • Clauson, Gerard (1972) An Etymological Dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish, Oxford: Clarendon Press, page 9
  • Sevortjan, E. V. (1974) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ tjurkskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Turkic Languages]‎[1] (in Russian), volume 1, Moscow: Nauka, page 540
  • Tenišev E. R., editor (2001) Sravnitelʹno-istoričeskaja grammatika tjurkskix jazykov: Leksika [Comparative Historical Grammar of Turkic Languages: Lexis] (in Russian), volume 4, Moscow: Nauka, page 276-277
  • Jegorov, V. G. (1964), “ӳпке”, in Etimologičeskij slovarʹ čuvašskovo jazyka [Etymological Dictionary of the Chuvash Language] (in Russian), Cheboksary: Čuvašskoje knižnoje izdatelʹstvo, page 280