Normally there is only one parameter to specify, e.g. for लड़का (laṛkā, “boy”), on that page:
The general format is a lemma followed by angle brackets, within which are declensional properties. The lemma can be omitted when it's the same as the page title, as in the above example.
For almost all nouns, at least the gender needs to be given within angle brackets:
M for masculine,
F for feminine. Some nouns need additional properties, e.g. पिता (pitā, “father”), which follows the "unmarked" declension (i.e. there is no direct masculine ending to be removed; instead, endings are added onto the full lemma):
Normally, it is enough to specify the gender of a noun, and the declension will be deduced based on the ending. However, there are two cases where the same ending can have two possible declensions:
1. Masculine nouns in -ā. By default the direct plural ends in -ē and the oblique plural in -õ, which is correct for most nouns. However, some nouns, such as पिता (pitā, “father”), have the direct plural in -ā and the oblique plural in -āõ. These "unmarked" nouns need the
unmarked indicator, as described above.
2. Feminine nouns in -iyā. By default, these are treated like any other feminine noun in -ā, with the direct plural in -āẽ and the oblique plural in -āõ. An example of such a noun is कनिया (kaniyā, “girl”). Some such nouns, however, have the direct plural in -iyã and the oblique plural in -iyõ. An example is तौलिया (tauliyā, “towel”). These nouns need the
You can explicitly specify the term to decline. This allows you, for example, to decline a term on a different page from the page of the term being declined. It is also necessary when more than one part of a term declines (see below), or when one word of a multiword term needs phonetic respelling (see multiword terms below). For example, the above declension of पिता (pitā, “father”) could be specified as follows:
Some terms have nonstandard transliterations. This can be indicated using phonetic respelling, i.e. spell out the word phonetically in Devanagari, using virama to force no a in a given position and
* to force an a in a given position. To specify this, use
// followed by the phonetic respelling, e.g. for अंतराल (antarāl, “interval”):
Here, we use phonetic respelling with a
* in it to force the transliteration antarāl instead of the default antrāl.
You can also specify the transliteration directly after
//, but using respelling is preferred, e.g. the above could be written as
In addition, you can explicitly specify the term to decline along with the respelling, e.g. the above could also be written as
See the section on explicit terms above.
Use the indicator
sg for singular-only nouns, and
pl for plural-only nouns. An example is मायने (māyne, “meaning(s), nuance(s)”):
Multiword terms like अदला-बदला (adlā-badlā, “exchange, swapping”) can be declined by placing
<...> after each word, e.g.:
Words are separated by spaces or hyphens, and
<...> indicators apply to individual words. Words without any indicators following them are assumed to be invariable. For example, the term काली मिर्च (kālī mirc, “black pepper”) would be specified as follows:
since omitting the term is equivalent to specifying the page name as the term. Both produce the following:
Here only the last word is respelled.
Respelling can be used on words without indicators, for example in पंचायती राज (pañcāytī rāj, “village council”), where the first word is invariable and needs respelling:
<+> after a word to indicate that it should be declined as an adjective. This is particularly useful in adjective-noun multiword terms such as कच्चा लोहा (kaccā lohā, “pig iron”):
You can use the same notation even with an adjective-noun combination is written as a single word, e.g. कालाधन (kālādhan, “black money”):
Some nouns have more than one possible declension. An example is ख़लीफ़ा (xalīfā, “caliph”), which can be declined either as an "unmarked" noun in -ā (direct plural ख़लीफ़ा, oblique plural ख़लीफ़ाओं) or a regular noun in -ā (direct plural ख़लीफ़े, oblique plural ख़लीफ़ों). To specify this, use the following notation:
The general syntax is comma-separated alternatives inside of double parentheses.
There are almost no restrictions on what can be used as an alternative. The genders do not have to agree; for example, to decline the word टिकट (ṭikaṭ, “ticket”), which can be either masculine or feminine, use the following:
It is even allowed to include a multiword term as an alternative. An example where this is useful is कीड़ा-मकोड़ा (kīṛā-makoṛā, “insect, creepy-crawly”), where the first part can either decline or be used invariably:
Some words are irregular in some of their forms. Syntax is provided to override individual forms. [document more]