- autonym. An automatically generated infrageneric or infraspecific name.
- comb. inval. (combinatio invalidum). A combination not validly published according to ICBN.
- comb. illeg. (combinatio illegitimum). A validly published name that is not in accordance with one or more rules in ICBN.
- comb. superfl. (combinatio superfluum). Superfluous combination, creating an illegitime homonym.
- et al. or & al. ( et alii (Maskulinum), et aliae (Femininum) oder et alia (Neutrum)). Latin for: and others, used to indicate other authors of a published work.
- nom. cons. (nomen conservandum). (1) A name of a family, genus or species [or infraspecies] ruled as legitimate and with precedence over other specified names even though it may have been illegitimate when published or lack priority (Art. 14.1-14.7). (2) A name for which its type, orthography, or gender has been fixed by the conservation process (Art. 14.1, 14.9-14.11).
- nom. cons. prop. (nomen conservandum propositus). Proposed conserved name.
- nom. dub. (nomen dubium). A dubious name without certain attribution.
- nom. illeg. (nomen illegitimum). A validly published name that is not in accordance with one or more rules (Art. 6.4), principally those on superfluity (Art. 52) and homonymy (Art. 53 and 54).
- nom. inadmiss. (nomen inadmissibile). Illegitime renaming of the type.
- nom. inval. (nomen invalidum). A name not validly published according to Art. 29-45 or H.9 (Art. 6.2).
- nom. nov. (nomen novum). A nomen novum is a new combination for which an author is obliged to substitute a new specific epithet or a new subspecific epithet as a result of homonymy.
- nom. nud. (nomen nudum). A "naked name" lacking formal publication.
- nom. rej. (nomen rejiciendum). A name rejected in favour of a name conserved under Art. 14 or a name ruled as rejected under Art. 56 (App. II, III, IV, and V).
- nom. rej. prop. (nomen rejiciendum propositus) Proposed rejected name.
- nom. superfl. (nomen superfluum). Superfluous name.
- non design. (non designatus). Not designated.
- opus utiq. oppr./opera utiq. oppr. (Opus/Opera utique oppressa) Works, ruled as suppressed. In these names, in specified ranks, are not validly published. "Opus" is singular, "opera" is plural.
- orth. cons. Conserved orthographic variant.
- orth. emend. Orthography emended in accordance with ICBN requirements.
- orth. var. Orthographic variant.
- p.p. (pro parte). In part.
- pro hybr. or pro hybrid. (pro hybridus). As hybrid.
- pro sp. (pro species). As species.
- rank. The following endings indicate rank in botanical nomenclature:
- -obiotina = subkingdom (-biotina)
- -ophytanae = superdivision or superphylum (-phytanae)
- -ophyta = division or phylum (-phyta)
- -ophytina = subdivision (-phytina)
- -opsida = class
- -idae = subclass
- -anae = superordo
- -ales = ordo
- -ineae = subordo
- -ariae = superfamilia
- -aceae = familia
- -indae = supersubfamilia
- -oideae = subfamilia
- -odae = supertribus
- -eae = tribus
- -odinae = supersubtribus
- -inae = subtribus
- sine dign. defin. (sine dignitate definita). Unranked taxa.
- sphalm. (sphalmate) By mistake, mistakenly.
- tax. nov. (taxon novum). A new taxon.
- typ. cons. (typus conservandus). With a conserved type.
Virus species definition
Species form the basis for any biological classification system. The ICTV had adopted the principle that a virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche. In July 2013, the ICTV definition of species changed to state: "A species is a monophyletic group of viruses whose properties can be distinguished from those of other species by multiple criteria."
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses began to devise and implement rules for the naming and classification of viruses early in the 1970s, an effort that continues to the present. The ICTV is the only body charged by the International Union of Microbiological Societies with the task of developing, refining, and maintaining a universal virus taxonomy.
The system shares many features with the classification system of cellular organisms, such as taxon structure. However, this system of nomenclature differs from other taxonomic codes on several points. A minor point is that names of orders and families are italicized, unlike in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants and International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
Viral classification starts at the level of order and continues as follows, with the taxon suffixes given in italics:
- Order (-virales)
Parasitic plant terms
Parasitic plants are characterized as follows:
- Holoparasite Hyobanche sanguinea, Richtersfeld, Namaqualand, northern cape, South Africa
- holoparasite – a plant that is completely parasitic on other plants and has virtually no chlorophyll.
- hemiparasite – a plant that is parasitic under natural conditions and is also photosynthetic to some degree. Hemiparasites may just obtain water and mineral nutrients from the host plant. Many obtain at least part of their organic nutrients from the host as well.
For hemiparasites, one from each of the three sets of terms can be applied to the same species, e.g.
Nuytsia floribunda (Western Australian Christmas tree) is an obligate root hemiparasite. Rhinanthus (e.g. Yellow rattle) is a facultative root hemiparasite. Mistletoe is an obligate stem hemiparasite.
Holoparasites are always obligate so only two terms are needed, e.g.
Dodder is a stem holoparasite. Hydnora spp. are root holoparasites.
Plants usually considered holoparasites include broomrape, dodder, Rafflesia, and Hydnoraceae. Plants usually considered hemiparasites include Castilleja, mistletoe, Western Australian Christmas tree and yellow rattle.