User:Muke/grc

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Ancient Greek[edit]

Alphabet[edit]

Native Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ϝ Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ϻ Ϙ Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω Ϡ
Romanized a b g d e v z ē th i c l m n x o p s q r s t y ph ch ps ō (ss)

Digraphs[edit]

Native ΑΙ ΕΙ ΟΙ ΑΥ ΕΥ ΗΥ ΟΥ ΡΡ ΓΓ ΓΚ ΓΧ ΓΞ
Romanized ae ī oe au eu ēu ū rrh ng nc nch nx

Note: This may look weird, but that's because it's a Romanization, not a strict transliteration. Following this practice is why we have dinosaurs and not *deinosaurs (δεινός), music not *mousic (μουσική), and archaeology and not *archaiology (ἀρχαῖος).

  • h for the rough breathing.
  • Use -os, -ē, -on, not Latinate -us, -a, -um.
  • Don't transliterate iota subscript unless relevant.

Pronunciation[edit]

Classical[edit]

Consonants[edit]
approx fric vl stop vl aspirate vd stop nasal
labials (w) p b m
dentals j l r s t d n
velars k ɡ ŋ
glottal h
  • Length is distinctive in consonants, thus /sː (s:)/
  • Gamma is /ŋ/ before /m/ (and /n/, too, I think).
  • The clusters represented by ψ, ξ were originally (where those letters had not been introduced) spelt ΦΣ, ΧΣ, implying that they were [pʰs kʰs]; for simplicity's sake and common practice it will probably be better to write /ps ks/ as the aspiration appears to be secondary.
  • Use /zd/ for ζ. Like it or not, that's the generally proclaimed value.
Vowels[edit]
front back
high i iː y yː
close-mid e eː o
open-mid ɛː ɔː
low a aː
  • The digraphs ει and ου were originally diphthongs ("genuine diphthongs"). The diphthong ει soon became /eː/, opposed to the plain letter η /ɛː/. ου was originally /oː/ opposed to ω /ɔː/, but soon became /uː/. After the genuine diphthongs monophthongized, their spellings began to be used for their homophones, sounds previously spelled ε and ο (long, but like the other vowels α ι υ, not marked as such). Thus the "spurious diphthongs".
  • During this period iota subscript was still pronounced, though perhaps in the process of being lost. Thus, /aːj/, /ɛːj/, /ɔːj/, or perhaps like /ɔː(j)/.
Pitch[edit]
  • Acute accent, high pitch, e.g. IPA /é/.
  • Circumflex accent, falling pitch, e.g. IPA /ê/.
  • Grave accent, no pitch, e.g. IPA /e/.

Koine[edit]

Consonants[edit]
approx vl stop vl fricative vd fricative nasal
labials p f β m
dentals j l r t s θ z ð n
velars k x ɣ ŋ
Vowels[edit]
front back
high i u
mid e o
low a
Accent[edit]
  • The Koine greatly simplified the sound system of Greek.... Besides the obliteration of nearly all diphthongs, the pitch accent was replaced by a stress accent, ordinary /ˈ/. If there was a secondary accent I don't know how it would be placed...

Citation Form[edit]

λέξις, -εως, ἡ f (lexis)

  • Mark the long vowels here; don't use macrons in page titles.
  • Link to the appropriate declension.
  • Transliteration goes on this line also.
  • A word with a digamma should link to that as an ===Alternative spelling===.