User:Visviva/Erkenntnis 200809

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This is a list of lowercase non-hyphenated single words, lacking English entries in the English Wiktionary as of the most recent database dump, found in the 2008-09 issue of Erkenntnis.

[ see all Erkenntnis pages ] - [ see all tracking lists ]

46378 tokens ‧ 38735 valid lowercase tokens ‧ 3597 types ‧ 75 (~ 2.085%) words before cleaning ‧ 

2008-09[edit]

  1. adjacencies
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      (Frydenberg 1990 ) and (Verma and Pearl 1991 ) have shown that probabilistic indistinguishability can be nicely captured in graphical terms: Two directed acyclic graphs G 1 and G 2 represent two probabilistically indistinguishable causally Markov and faithful causal structures iff (i) G 1 and G 2 have the same vertex set; (ii) G 1 and G 2 have the same adjacencies; and (iii) G 1 and G 2 have the same unshielded colliders , where an unshielded collider is constituted by two edges that collide at the same vertex and whose tails are not adjacent.
      add - notemp
  2. arithmeticity
    • Template:start year}2008, Luca Incurvati, “Too Naturalist and Not Naturalist Enough: Reply to Horsten”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9114-1:
      For the arithmeticity of the axioms of PA—i. e. the claim that they can be seen as true on the basis of our basic grasp of the structure of the natural numbers—is motivated by Isaacson by appealing to the categoricity of PA 2 , the second-order theory which provides us with a categorical characterization of the natural numbers as the smallest structure closed under a one-to-one successor operation and containing an element which is not the successor of any element.
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  3. asker
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      ” David Wiggins writes, “[o]ne who asks that question asks someone else to complete what he or she (the asker) has begun upon.
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  4. axiomatised
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      4 He introduced a model-theoretical characterisation of scientific theories opposing the then prevailing orthodox view of theories as deductively closed and finitely axiomatised sets of sentences.
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  5. axiomatizable
    • Template:start year}2008, Luca Incurvati, “Too Naturalist and Not Naturalist Enough: Reply to Horsten”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9114-1:
      Rather than identifying a natural type within the sphere of mathematical knowledge, Horsten’s Conjecture says what form the statements mathematically accepted by the mathematical community take as a whole, by claiming that they form an axiomatizable theory, and giving a guess as to what that theory is.
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  6. biconditional
    • Template:start year}2008, Mikkel Gerken, “Is There a Simple Argument for Higher-Order Representation Theories of Awareness Consciousness?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9116-z:
      Moreover, it is downgraded from a biconditional formulation.
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  7. categoricity
    • Template:start year}2008, Luca Incurvati, “Too Naturalist and Not Naturalist Enough: Reply to Horsten”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9114-1:
      For the arithmeticity of the axioms of PA—i. e. the claim that they can be seen as true on the basis of our basic grasp of the structure of the natural numbers—is motivated by Isaacson by appealing to the categoricity of PA 2 , the second-order theory which provides us with a categorical characterization of the natural numbers as the smallest structure closed under a one-to-one successor operation and containing an element which is not the successor of any element.
      add - notemp
  8. chainlike
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      The chain problem might be seen to establish that coincidence data must be complemented by additional empirical information in order to allow for unambiguous inferences to chainlike structures.
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  9. conditionalize
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      In any case we can conditionalize our result: assuming the supplement view, at t 3 Schmidt retains WATER (!
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  10. conjuncts
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      (1) and (2) are logically equivalent, which can easily be established by alternately substituting C and A ∨ B in the second conjuncts of the two expressions.
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  11. contextualism
    • Template:start year}2008, Peter Baumann, “Contrastivism Rather than Something Else? On the Limits of Epistemic Contrastivism”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9111-4:
      In that case, contrastivism would have to be combined with contextualism.
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  12. contextualist
  13. contrastivism
    • Template:start year}2008, Peter Baumann, “Contrastivism Rather than Something Else? On the Limits of Epistemic Contrastivism”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9111-4:
      In the last section I proposed to broaden contrastivism with respect to admissible kinds of third relata while in the first section I proposed to restrict it with respect to kinds of knowledge.
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  14. contrastivist
    • Template:start year}2008, Peter Baumann, “Contrastivism Rather than Something Else? On the Limits of Epistemic Contrastivism”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9111-4:
      Now, I am going to argue that the contrastivist should accept a further condition on the knowledge-relation, a further relativization.
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  15. covary
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      In establishing the identity of objects spatiotemporally, the infant is able to track the properties that covary with those objects.
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  16. criterionless
  17. demonstratives
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      But I emphasize that, for an anti-individualist, the fact that such demonstratives are employed in fixing the reference no more affects the contents being thought in the water case, than they do in the case of Sid and the twins.
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  18. determinately
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      Sid’s inability to tell the twins apart, however, does not preclude him from being able to determine (demonstratively or indexically) which twin he is thinking of, on any occasion on which he is determinately thinking of one of them.
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  19. discriminability
  20. dishabituate
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      Separate experiments show that infants habituated to repeated occurrences of one object will dishabituate to the presentation of a new object (Xu and Carey 1996 , p. 136).
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  21. disquotation
    • Template:start year}2008, Peter Baumann, “Contrastivism Rather than Something Else? On the Limits of Epistemic Contrastivism”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9111-4:
      There is a principle at work here which is analogous to disquotation principles for sentences: Skip “the belief that” on the left side of “is true iff” and you get the right hand side of the bi-conditional (assuming that the meta-language contains the object-language).
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  22. doubtworthy
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      After all, she is using ‘water’ with the intention of designating a natural kind; and so if she stops to consider whether it is possible that there are in fact two natural kinds in play, both exhibiting superficially indistinguishable watery features but different as to their underlying nature, she herself would regard T1** and T2** as differentially doubtworthy.
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  23. dubitability
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      Second, while so construing a subject has some far-reaching consequences—it sometimes complicates the matter of determining the rationality of differential dubitability, and it suggests that a subject’s relation to her own conceptions may be more complicated than we might have supposed—the proposed construal does not ultimately introduce any troublesome gap between the subject’s cognitive perspective and how she conceives of things.
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  24. endogenises
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      Thus the complete framework of General Equilibrium Theory as developed, for instance, in the Arrow–Debreu model is too general as a basis of ITT. 10 Furthermore, this model endogenises properties, such as the time and place of commodities, which are crucial to ITT and should therefore be made explicit in a reconstruction of the theory.
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  25. enthymematic
    • Template:start year}2008, Mikkel Gerken, “Is There a Simple Argument for Higher-Order Representation Theories of Awareness Consciousness?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9116-z:
      It is noted that The Simple Argument, as stated, is invalid or, at best, enthymematic.
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  26. enumerative
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      After all, “physical object” hardly provides the clearly demarcated enumerative conditions that the sortal dependency thesis seems to require.
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  27. equilibriums
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      For given supply and demand structures ITT predicts two equilibriums, one for the state of autarky and one for the state of trade.
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  28. equivalencies
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      When we pre-theoretically or informally model the processes behind interpretations (I) and (II) we seem to implicitly draw on additional information, which apparently resolves c -equivalencies.
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  29. extensivity
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      To make sure that the dependencies between aggregations of economic units and their constituents are not violated, we define the extensivity constraint C ex (ITT 0 ).
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  30. featural
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      As Xu and Carey have shown, while children may be aware of property or featural distinctions between objects, they do not use them to distinguish unique individuals (Xu and Carey 1996 ).
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  31. formalizable
    • Template:start year}2008, Luca Incurvati, “Too Naturalist and Not Naturalist Enough: Reply to Horsten”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9114-1:
      20 For instance, the proof of G ZFC formalizable in Tr(ZFC) makes use of the concept of truth, which, Horsten ( 2001 , pp. 178–179) claims, is a philosophical and not a mathematical concept.
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  32. indexically
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      Sid’s inability to tell the twins apart, however, does not preclude him from being able to determine (demonstratively or indexically) which twin he is thinking of, on any occasion on which he is determinately thinking of one of them.
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  33. indiscernibility
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      But if we reject this claim, then, while we can preserve the hypothesis that Schmidt is rational in adopting an attitude of differential doubt, we lose our grounds for supposing that the thought-contents she is thinking are subjectively indistinguishable to her (this supposition having been based on the subjective indiscernibility of T1 and T2 qua contents).
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  34. individuative
  35. interpretability
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      15 Data collection, of course, has to comply with specific constraints that guarantee the causal interpretability of that data.
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  36. intratheoretical
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      The class of intratheoretical relations C(ITT 0 ) is the intersection C id (ITT 0 ) ∩ C ex (ITT 0 ).
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  37. metatheoretical
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      In conclusion I will evaluate the gains achieved by formalising ITT from a metatheoretical point of view.
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  38. metatheory
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      The basic idea of the structuralist metatheory is to describe scientific theories in terms of model classes.
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  39. misdescription
  40. negatable
  41. nonconceptual
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      This does not rule out the possibility that these capacities are ultimately nonconceptual, but it nevertheless provides strong reasons for supposing that they are not.
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  42. noncontextual
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      Thus, while there is no unrestricted or noncontextual application of concepts like object or thing, it is nevertheless clear that there are circumstances in which the application conditions of the object concept do yield precise enumerations of objects within a given situation.
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  43. nonobjects
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      It should be clear, however, that this is not the basic distinction between three-dimensional spatially bound objects and nonobjects that the child uses to parse his or her experience.
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  44. ostensions
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      It is only insofar as the object concept yields ambiguous ostensions and designations that it is likely to be overthrown in favour of more precise classifications.
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  45. phenomenalism
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      It runs contrary to Piaget’s assertion ( 1954 ) that infants of this age act out of a sort of egocentric phenomenalism, in which what exists for the child only does so relative to his or her current perceptions.
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  46. pretheoretically
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      I don’t dispute that some cases of this sort—involving a subject who differentially doubts what, pretheoretically, we would take to be one and the same thought-content, entertained twice—might be best described by hypothesizing a difference in content.
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  47. productivities
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      As a consequence of the linearity of the transformation curve the productivities of labour are identical in the states of autarky and trade.
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  48. proximately
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      Notwithstanding this lacking specificity, given a concrete causal process and a level of specificity chosen for the analysis of that process it is normally uncontroversial which factors can be said to be proximately instantiated.
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  49. referentially
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      If the child’s first step is referentially empty, then his or her capacity to make further, more refined sortal designations becomes equally problematic.
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  50. representationalist
    • Template:start year}2008, Mikkel Gerken, “Is There a Simple Argument for Higher-Order Representation Theories of Awareness Consciousness?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9116-z:
      It seems plausible that the disagreement between the competing representationalist theories traces back to an underlying disagreement about the nature of mental representation.
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  51. representationalists
    • Template:start year}2008, Mikkel Gerken, “Is There a Simple Argument for Higher-Order Representation Theories of Awareness Consciousness?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9116-z:
      Notably, both anti-representationalists and representationalists have rejected that it does.
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  52. representatum
    • Template:start year}2008, Mikkel Gerken, “Is There a Simple Argument for Higher-Order Representation Theories of Awareness Consciousness?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9116-z:
      A theory according to which a causal connection to the representatum is a necessary condition on mental representation is a candidate which might do the job (along with S5).
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  53. semiformal
    • Template:start year}2008, Frieder Lempp, “The Logical Structure of International Trade Theory”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9110-5:
      Firstly, the reconstruction provides a consistent and uniform presentation of the theory, which is more precise than most economic descriptions mixing natural language with semiformal and mathematical expressions.
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  54. sortal
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      The possession of sortal concepts is a prerequisite for philosophers like Wiggins or Lowe in determining the nature and extent of our referential capacities.
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  55. sortalism
  56. sortalist
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      In delimiting what features of a given object or kind are relevant to determining instances of that kind, the sortalist has specified a de facto means for enumerating and recognizing its tokens.
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  57. sortalized
    • Template:start year}2008, John E. Sarnecki, “Sortals for Dummies”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9094-6:
      If it can be shown, for example, that children or infants lack the appropriate discriminative abilities––if they do not, as a matter of fact, make sortalized discriminations––then the account of concept possession above cannot be sustained.
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  58. standardly
    • Template:start year}2007, Sanford Goldberg, “Must Differences in Cognitive Value be Transparent?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-007-9096-4:
      At the same time, because Jones has been slow-switched, the anti-individualist would standardly regard T1** and T2** as distinct thought-contents.
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  59. substitutability
  60. supervenience
  61. tenseless
    • Template:start year}2008, Kevin Dewan, “Review of Heather Dyke, Metaphysics and the Representational Fallacy”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9115-0:
      Those who endorse the A-theory of time, for example, often attempt to show that tense is ineliminable, i. e. , it is impossible to adequately paraphrase tensed sentences into tenseless ones.
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  62. tokened
    • Template:start year}2008, Mikkel Gerken, “Is There a Simple Argument for Higher-Order Representation Theories of Awareness Consciousness?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9116-z:
      S4 alt : A mental state, M*, is S’s mental representation of an object, O, iff (if optimal conditions were to obtain, then M* would be tokened in S iff (O obtains and O cause M*)).
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  63. tokening
    • Template:start year}2008, Mikkel Gerken, “Is There a Simple Argument for Higher-Order Representation Theories of Awareness Consciousness?”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9116-z:
      In which sense does ‘∀p ~(p & ~p)’ cause the tokening of the belief in the subject?
      add - notemp
  64. transferences
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      27 However, for the sake of the argument, let us again ignore these conceptual hurdles in order to see whether, given that clarity on the notion of a transfer process could somehow be presupposed, the chain problem could at least be solved for physical processes that in fact involve such transferences.
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  65. truthmaker
  66. truthmaking
    • Template:start year}2008, Kevin Dewan, “Review of Heather Dyke, Metaphysics and the Representational Fallacy”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9115-0:
      On the whole, Dyke’s book is an important contribution to debates about philosophical methodology, truthmaking, and ontology.
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  67. underdetermination
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      Addressing this question is not only relevant for determining whether the empirical underdetermination of causal inferences is a matter of principle or merely a consequence of unsuitable or noisy data.
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  68. underdetermines
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      2000 ) the fact that empirical data often considerably underdetermines causal inferences—especially when it comes to inferences to complex causal structures—has become a widely recognized and investigated problem in the literature on (algorithmic) causal reasoning.
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  69. unshielded
    • Template:start year}2008, Michael Baumgartner, “The Causal Chain Problem”, Erkenntnis, volume 69, number 2, DOI:10.1007/s10670-008-9113-2:
      (Frydenberg 1990 ) and (Verma and Pearl 1991 ) have shown that probabilistic indistinguishability can be nicely captured in graphical terms: Two directed acyclic graphs G 1 and G 2 represent two probabilistically indistinguishable causally Markov and faithful causal structures iff (i) G 1 and G 2 have the same vertex set; (ii) G 1 and G 2 have the same adjacencies; and (iii) G 1 and G 2 have the same unshielded colliders , where an unshielded collider is constituted by two edges that collide at the same vertex and whose tails are not adjacent.
      add - notemp

Sequestered[edit]