Wiktionary:About Primitive Irish

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Defining the language[edit]

Primitive Irish (ISO 639-3 code pgl) is defined here as Goidelic terms dating to the 6th century or before and written in Ogham. Later terms may be considered Old Irish, Middle Irish, Modern Irish or Scottish Gaelic. Please also note that not all inscriptions in Ogham are necessarily in Primitive Irish.

All terms should have an entry with a title in Ogham, and another entry with the transliteration as its title, that has the following line:

# {{form of|Romanization|{{Ogham}}|lang=pgl|sc=Ogam}}: {{translation}}.

where {{Ogham}} is replaced by the title of the main entry for that word in Ogham, and {{translation}} is the translation of the word in question into English.

If a Primitive Irish word has descendants in Old Irish, modern Irish, Scottish Gaelic, or Manx, these may be listed in a "Descendants" section.

Sound changes[edit]

Proto-Celtic Primitive Irish
Normal Affection (i) Affection (a) Affection (o)
a/ā /a(ː)/ a /a/
o /o/ o /o/ u /u/
u/ū /u(ː)/ u /u/
e/ē /e(ː)/ e /e/ i /i/
i /i/ i /i/ e /e/ e /e/
Proto-Celtic Primitive Irish
Normal Palatised
y i
k k c
q
p1 q
w- v-

NOTES
1 Imported from Latin.

Declension[edit]

There are several types of declensions for masculine nouns and one (known) declension for feminine nouns.

MASCULINE

o-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -as
Accusative
Genitive -i
Dative
yo-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -ias
Accusative
Genitive -i
Dative
u-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -us
Accusative
Genitive -os1
Dative
i-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -is
Accusative
Genitive -os1
Dative
dental stem Singular Plural
Nominative -ts
Accusative
Genitive -tos2
Dative

FEMININE

á-stem Singular Plural
Nominative -a
Accusative
Genitive -as, -ea, -eas
Dative

NOTES
1 This later developed into o or u. 2 This later developed into tas.

Developments[edit]

Primitive Irish Old Irish
Normal Lenition
q /kʷ/ c /k/ ch /x/
t /t/ t /t/ th /θ/
k /k/ c /k/ ch /x/
v- /w/ (/ʍ/?) f- /f/ ḟ- (silent)
d /d/ d /d/ d /ð/
v /w/ (/ʍ/?) b /v/

Example of development[edit]

PROTO-CELTIC
wiros
PRIMITIVE IRISH
viras (os > as)
veras (i lowers to match the a)
vera (s dropped)
ver (apocope finalised)
OLD IRISH
fer

PROTO-CELTIC
rorīgos /roriːgos/
PRIMITIVE IRISH
rurīgos (i affection) /ruriːɣos/
ruregas (o affection + os > as) /rureɣas/
rurega (s dropped)/rureɣa/
rureg (apocope finalised) /rureɣ/
OLD IRISH
ruirech
/rurʲex/