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Old Irish[edit]


From ess- (non-) +‎ carae (friend), literally "non-friend".


escarae m

  1. enemy
    • c. 800, Würzburg Glosses on the Pauline Epistles, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 499–712, Wb. 30b27
      .i. cense fri cách, eter carit et escarit
      i.e. gentleness to everyone, both friend and foe
    Synonym: námae


Masculine nt-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative escarae escaraitL escarait
Vocative escarae escaraitL escairtea
Accusative escaraitN escaraitL escairtea
Genitive escarat escaratL escaratN
Dative escaraitL escairtib escairtib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization


  • Middle Irish: escara


Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
escarae unchanged n-escarae
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading[edit]