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A 3D model of a hydronium ion
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hydro- +‎ onium


hydronium (plural hydroniums)

  1. (inorganic chemistry) The hydrated hydrogen ion, H3O+.
    • 1996, Richard I. Masel, Principles of Adsorption and Reaction on Solid Surfaces, Wiley, page 148,
      The case of hydronium ions (H3O+) is an example of this. In the gase[sic] phase, hydronium is a weak acid. The data in Table 3.10 indicates that bare hydronium ions have a higher electron affinity than most metal surfaces, so a bare hydronium ion should be neutralized when it absorbs on a bare metal surface. However, a hydrated hydronium ion is a stronger acid.
    • 2006, Johanna Holm, Forgotten Chemistry: A Refresher Course, Barron's Educational Series, page 160,
      Acids are compounds that produce hydronium ions when mixed with water. [] The hydronium ion is a very special ion because it is the defining particle of all acids.
    • 2016, Philippe Deprez, Textbook of Chemical Peels: Superficial, Medium, and Deep Peels in Cosmetic Practice, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis (CRC Press), page 48,
      Hydronium is not a way of stabilizing an acid, because the structure itself is so quickly transient that it can be considered as not existing.
    • 2016, Andrés G. Muñoz, Photoelectrochemical Solar Conversion Systems: Molecular and Electronic Aspects, Taylor & Francis (CRC Press), page 206,
      There is experimental evidence for the formation of coordination groups of hydroniums with several water molecules by hydrogen bridges.

Usage notes[edit]

May also be defined as the simplest of a class of oxygen cations with three bonds (i.e., the simplest form of oxonium).



Coordinate terms[edit]


Further reading[edit]